Quizzes #1-7

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Providing raw material to cottagers to transform into finished products is an example of early capitalism and was encompassed in:
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The Putting-Out System
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T/F. Many of the PHILOSOPHES of the Enlightenment had formal training in philosophy at some of Europe’s earliest universities.
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False, they were mainly AMATEURS and debated ideas in the company of other amateurs.
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The notion that the Earth was flat…
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…had long since been challenged by mathematicians such as Ptolemy, whose writings were widely read amongst explorers.
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The Scientific Revolution encompassed:
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The application of natural evidence to understand the world and causation within it. Allowing conclusions to be drawn from hard evidence presented. An understanding of the universe in relation to physical space and motion.
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The term \”Old Regime\” denoted:
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The rigid social and legal structure that governed society, labor, and human interaction.
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The Tennis Court Oath was:
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A promise made by members of the Third Estate not to disband until a constitution for France had been written.
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Why did Napoleon invade Russia?
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To gain a military victory in order to display his power, and quell dissent over his losses in Spain. To bring Tsar Alexander I and Russia back within the Continental System.
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The general mobilization of all men, women, and children to serve the French nation in some capacity was known as…
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Levée en masse, or mass rising.
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The National Assembly abolished the feudal system of social organization in France as part of sweeping legislation know as:
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The August Decrees of 4 and 5 August 1789.
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The kingdom-wide meeting of representatives called to solve France’s financial problem was termed:
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The Estates General
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The pre-capitalist system that placed raw materials in the hands of cottiers to be assembled, collected, and sold at market was known as:
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The Putting-Out System
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T/F. All of Europe industrialized at the same pace.
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False. Although France and the Low Countries had abundant supplies of coal and iron, they failed to begin to industrialize until 1830.
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Known as \”the oldest profession,\” this line of work grew in proportion to the unemployment and hardship that accompanied industrialization and urbanization in Europe.
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Prostitution
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Britain was predisposed to industrialization due to…
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…an abundance of coal deposits. …a series of canals for internal transport. …an entrepreneurial spirit. …a growing railway system.
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Population growth accelerated as a result of industrialization. This alarmed observers such as Thomas Malthus, who argued that…
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…the growing population would eventually outstrip food supplies.
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The nineteenth century ideology that rejected the Enlightenment and the structure, order and results-based mentality of the Industrial Revolution was:
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Romanticism
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The political philosophy that refuted Enlightenment ideas and revolutionary principles, and instead based itself on tradition and gradual change, was known as:
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Conservatism
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Jeremy Bentham’s argument that society, and the laws that govern it, should:
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Adhere to the principle of utility: that which would benefit the most people.
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Adam Smith’s basic argument in Wealth of Nations was:
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Economics follow natural laws similar to the way the world obeyed the laws of physics. Humans pursue what is best for them individually, which benefits the group as a whole.
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The international body, established as a result of the Congress of Vienna, sought to police Europe in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars that embodied European conservatism was known as:
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The Concert of Europe
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T/F. According to Marx, the more a worker produces the less he or she can afford to partake of the spoils of their labor.
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True, in the opening of Scientific Socialism, Marx stated: \”From Economic & Philosophical Manuscripts, 1844: The laborer becomes poorer the more wealth he produces, indeed, the more powerful and wide-ranging his production becomes. Labor does not only produce commodities, it produces itself and the laborer as a commodity, and in relation to the level at which it produces commodities. The product of labor is labor, which fixes itself in the object, it becomes a thing, it is the objectification of labor. The objectification of labor manifests itself so much as a loss of objects, that the laborer is robbed of the most necessary objects, not only to maintain his own life, but even objects with which to labor. Indeed, labor itself becomes an object, which only with the greatest effort and with random interruptions can be acquired. Appropriation of objects manifests itself so much as estrangement, that, the more objects the laborer produces, the fewer he can own and so he plunges deeper under the mastery of his product: Capital.\”
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In socialist theory, the idea of the dialectic is expressed as:
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The struggle between labor (those that work and produce) and capital (those that own the means of production and profit from labor).
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The forces of the Old Order who feared communism in the wake of 1848 were, according to Marx, part of the:
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Holy Alliance: the Church, the State, alternate political rivals
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Realization of one’s position in society based on economic status, education, skills, and social mobility, and the realization that others share one’s position, is referred to as:
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Class Consciousness
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Drawing on the principles of Marxism, revolutionaries established Communist, or pseudo-Communist regimes in:
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics North Korea The People’s Republic of China
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The mid-19th century was certain a time for revolutionary ideas. Like Marx, Darwin challenged how people thought about human organization. Why was \”natural selection\” or evolutionary theory considered to be revolutionary at the time?
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It challenged established elements of religious thought regarding natural order of humans and animals.
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Justifications for imperialism, militarism and statecraft, and triumphalist European attitudes about the world can be said to reflect:
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Social Darwinian attitudes
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Darwin’s theory on Natural Selection argued that:
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Species adapt to challenges posed in their environments, or die. Species develop and evolve through slow changes prompted by their environments.
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What were some of the ways Darwin influenced other contemporary thinkers?
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His theory re-founded the biological sciences. His theory leant itself to the foundation of the social sciences. His theory changed religious orthodoxy.
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In his 1871 tract, The Descent of Man, Darwin argued:
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Man’s social instincts were naturally selected; as man evolved, so too did the concept of God.
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In order to bring reluctant German states into line with Prussian policy, between 1864 and 1871 Bismarck waged war against all the following:
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Austria France Denmark
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The argument for Italian unification, which boasted common language, history, and culture, reflects the characteristics of which nineteenth century ideology?
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Nationalism
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Reflecting on the unification of Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary, the preservation of the American republic, and the establishment of the French Third Republic, one theme appears prevalent. Which is it?
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War
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To add insult to injury, following the Franco-Prussian War the new unified German Empire, which proclaimed Kaiser Wilhelm as its ruler, was declared from:
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The Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, outside Paris.
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What prevented internal cohesion in both the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Ottoman Empire during the latter nineteenth century?
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Large physical territories, which were difficult to manage politically. Diverse ethnic and religious make up. Diverse languages and national traditions.
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Otto von Bismarck’s \”Realpolitik\” strategy for political dominance of German territory might be surmised in the well-known phrase:
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The ends justify the means.

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