PSYCHOLOGY (PROLOGUE)

Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

SCIENTIFIC, BEHAVIOR, MENTAL PROCESSES

Empiricism
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment

BLANK SLATE, EXPERIENCE = KNOWLEDGE

Wilhelm Wundt
professor that established the first lab and experiment of modern psychology

NUMBER WUNDT, FIRST LAB

Edward Bradford Titchener
Wundt’s student that introduced structuralism to explore the elements of the mind

STRUCTURALISM, INTROSPECTION, INSIDE INFORMATION

Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

SELF-REFLECT, TITCHENER, ELEMENTS

William James
psychologist that introduced functionalism, focused on the adaptive functions of the brain, and made a widely popular psychology textbook

HAPPY GUY, FUNCTIONALISM, TEXTBOOK

Functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

THINKING AN ADAPTATION, PROCESSES FUNCTION

Mary Whiton Calkins
female student privately tutored by William James that was denied Harvard’s Ph.D. in psych despite outscoring all male students, became president of APA

DENIED DEGREE, BECAME PRESIDENT

Margaret Floy Washburn
first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D,; synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mind

FIRST WOMAN Ph.D., ANIMALS

Sigmund Freud
famed personality theorist and therapist whose controversial ideas on the unconscious influenced humanity’s self-understanding

SUBCONSCIOUS, CONTROVERSIAL, SEXUAL, MAGELLAN

Psychoanalytic perspective
Freud’s theory of personality argued that human behavior results from the interaction of 3 parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego. Placed great importance on the role of unconscious psychological conflicts in shaping behavior and personality

FREUD, SUPEREGO, UNCONSCIOUS, BEHAVIOR, PAST

Gestalt perspective
brain does not act like a sponge (as a passive receiver of information) but actively filters, structures, and matches all incoming information against known patterns to make sense of it.

BRAIN FILTERS, WHAT’S SEEN MAYBE NOT THERE

Jean Piaget
the Swiss psychologist best known for work on children

MAGELLAN, OBSERVED CHILDREN

Ivan Pavlov
Russian psychologist who pioneered the study of learning

MAGELLAN, STUDY OF LEARNING

John Watson
flamboyant and provocative psychologist who dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as “scientific study of observable behavior”

BEHAVIORALIST, LIKE SKINNER, PROVOCATIVE

B.F. Skinner
provocative psychologist who dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as “scientific study of observable behavior”

BEHAVIORALIST, LIKE WATSON, PROVOCATIVE

Dorothea Dix
social reformer whose devotion to the welfare of the mentally ill led to widespread international reforms. After seeing horrific conditions in a Massachusetts prison, she spent the next 40 years lobbying U.S. and Canadian legislators to establish state hospitals for the mentally ill.

HELP MENTALLY ILL, INTERNATIONAL REFORMS

Humanistic psychology
a softer, 1960s response to Freudian psychology and behavioralism that emphasized importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, meeting needs of love and acceptance

INFLUENCES, GROWTH POTENTIAL, LOVE

Carl Rogers
pioneer of humanistic psychology that found Freudian psychology and behaviorism too mechanistic and emphasized needs for love and acceptance

HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY, LOVE

G. Stanley Hall
first president of American Psychological Association and first American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology

FIRST APA, FIRST PHD

Nature-nurture
the debate over whether human traits develop through experience or are inborn

DEBATE, EXPERIENCE VS INHERENT

Natural selection
the mechanism for descent with modification that Darwin proposed through which nature selects those that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment

DARWIN, EVOLUTION, BEST FIT

Charles Darwin
the student whose book Origin of Species rocked the biological world by introducing the concept of evolution, believed animal behavior was also covered by his theory

EVOLUTION, BEHAVIOR ALSO INHERITED

Biopsychosocial approach
a general model or approach stating that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors), and social factors, all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease

ALL THREE MAKE DISEASE

Neuroscience perspective
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences

BRAIN FUNCTIONS, BLOOD CHEMISTRY MOOD?

Evolutionary perspective
how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes

EVOLUTION AFFECTS BEHAVIOR?

Behavior genetics
how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences

GENES OR ENVIRONMENT ACCOUNTABLE

Psychodynamic perspective
how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

UNCONSCIOUS AND CONFLICTS = BEHAVIOR, PAST

Behavioral perspective
how we learn observable responses

LEARN OBSERVABLE RESPONSES

Cognitive perspective
how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

ENCODE, PROCESS, RETRIEVE INFO

Social-cultural perspective
how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

HOW BEHAVIOR VARY CULTURES

Basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

PURE SCIENCE, BASE

Applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

STUDY, SOLVE PRACTICAL PROBLEMS

Counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

ASSISTS PEOPLE, SCHOOL / MARRIAGE

Clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

ASSESSES/TREATS PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

Psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy

DRUGS / THERAPY PSYCH DISORDERS

Biological psychology
field in which the mind-body connection is explored through scientific research and clinical practice. Researchers in this field study the biological basis of thoughts, emotions and behaviors

MIND-BODY CONNECTION EXPLORED

Cognitive psychology
study of mental processes such as “attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking

ATTENTION, MEMORY, CREATIVITY, PERCEPTION

Developmental psychology
the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan

HOW WE DEVELOP OVER LIFETIME

Educational psychology
a branch of psychology that studies children in an educational setting and is concerned with teaching and learning methods, cognitive development, and aptitude assessment.

TEACHING / LEARNING METHODS, KIDS

Experimental psychology
the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific investigation of basic psychological processes such as learning, memory, and cognition in humans and animals.

INVESTIGATION PSYCH HUMANS /ANIMALS

Human factors psychology
scientific discipline which examines human behavior and capabilities in order to find the best ways to design products, equipment and systems for maximum safe, effective, satisfying use by humans

PRODUCTS, SAFE, SATISFYING SYSTEMS, FACTORY

Industrial-organizational psychology
the scientific study of human behavior in the workplace and applies psychological theories and principles to organization

WORKPLACE, APPLY PSYCH 2 ORGANIZATION

Personality psychology
a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals. Its areas of focus include: Construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processes

STUDY PERSONALITY VARIATION

Psychometric psychology
the science of measuring mental capacities and processes

MEASURING MENTAL CAPACITY

Social psychology
the scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical method of investigation

PRESENCE OF OTHERS INFLUENCE

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