Psychology practice test

Humanists believe that people’s behavior is governed by​
a. ​unconscious sexual urges
b. ​their self-concepts
c. ​the outcomes of their responses
d. ​biochemical processes
their self-concepts
Psychology’s intellectual parents are the disciplines of​
a. ​philosophy and chemistry
b. ​philosophy and physiology
c. physics and physiology
d. ​chemistry and physics
philosophy and physiology
A psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s that reflects a renewed interest in the study of the mind or consciousness that existed in psychology when it first became a science in the late 1800s is the​
a. ​biological perspective
b. ​cognitive perspective
c. ​philosophical perspective
d. ​mental perspective
cognitive perspective
A group of psychologists is conducting research to determine whether people eat more when they are in the presence of environmental stimuli that increase anxiety, such as loud noises or flashing lights. These scientists MOST likely follow​
a. ​the behavioral perspective
b. ​the humanistic perspective
c. ​the functionalist perspective
d. ​the psychodynamic perspective
​the behavioral perspective
The type of psychologist who would be MOST likely to study rats in a laboratory setting would be a​
a. ​Gestalt psychologist
b. ​behaviorist
c. ​psychoanalyst
d. ​structuralist
behaviorist
In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called​
a. introspection
b. ​retrospection
c. ​empiricism
d. ​psychoanalysis
introspection
Which of the following statements about Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is MOST accurate?​
a. ​Freud’s views exert a tremendous influence on developmental and abnormal psychology, but not on other areas of mainstream psychology
b. ​Freud’s views have been largely abandoned and they exert relatively little, if any, influence on current mainstream psychology
c. ​Freud’s views exert a tremendous influence on other disciplines, but not on psychology
d. ​Many psychoanalytic concepts have filtered into the mainstream of psychology
Many psychoanalytic concepts have filtered into the mainstream of psychology
Currently, a large proportion of the American population is overweight. Dr. Laker thinks that, in part, this may be due to an innate preference for foods that are rich in fats and sugars. Dr. Laker has suggested that in times when foods were not so readily available, this innate preference would ensure enough calories for energy and survival. Dr. Laker’s views are MOST consistent with those of the​
a. ​evolutionary perspective in psychology
b. ​behavioral perspective in psychology
c. ​cultural perspective in psychology
d. ​cognitive perspective in psychology
evolutionary perspective in psychology
Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as an effective study technique?​
a. ​Concentrate your study time immediately before an exam
b. ​Set up a schedule for studying
c. ​Study in a place where distractions are minimal
d. ​Break major assignments down into smaller component tasks
Concentrate your study time immediately before an exam
Which of the following areas of specialization in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers?​
a. ​experimental psychology
b. ​industrial/organizational psychology
c. ​educational psychology
d. school psychology​
educational psychology
Which of the following is a recent movement in psychology that has revived the old interest in mental and conscious events?​
a. physiological psychology​
b. ​cognitive psychology
c. ​psychoanalysis
d. ​behavioral psychology
​cognitive psychology
Which of the following professionals receive general training in medicine and receive an M.D. (medical doctor) degree?
a. ​clinical psychologists only
b. ​both psychiatrists and clinical psychologists
c. ​counseling psychologists only
d. ​psychiatrists only
psychiatrists only
Sally is a psychologist interested improving curriculum design, achievement testing, and teacher training. What type of psychologist is Sally?
a. ​an industrial psychologist
b. ​an educational psychologist
c. ​a school psychologist
d. ​a counseling psychologist
​an educational psychologist
Marie is a graduate student whose major area of interest is personality psychology. You should expect that Marie is MOST interested in​
a. ​how people relate to each other and influence each other
b. ​the ways in which behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime
c. ​the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behavior
d. ​the factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations
the factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations
According to the definition of psychology that appears in your textbook, psychology is both​
a. ​a school of thought and an occupation
b. ​a science and a profession
c. ​a theory and an academic discipline
d. ​a cognitive process and an undergraduate major
a science and a profession
When faced with a major assignment such as a term paper it is a good idea to​
a. ​start the assignment with a clear idea of your conclusion in mind
b. ​set aside a large block of time (for example, an entire weekend) to devote to the assignment
c. ​break the assignment down into smaller components
d. ​postpone beginning the assignment until shortly before the due date in order to incorporate information from the instructor’s lectures into the project
break the assignment down into smaller components
Which of the following is NOT good advice for developing sound study habits?​
a. ​Avoid taking study breaks while studying
b. ​Set up a schedule for studying
c. ​Find a place to study where you can concentrate
d. ​Reward yourself for studying
Avoid taking study breaks while studying
The area of research specialization in psychology that studies many of the traditional topics in psychology (such as sensation, learning, motivation) is​
a. ​experimental
b. ​psychometrics
c. ​educational
d. ​cognitive
experimental
Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by​
a. ​analyzing conscious experience into its basic elements
b. ​studying the function or purpose of consciousness
c. ​studying observable behavior
d. ​focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
Which of the following would be LEAST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?​
a. ​shaping behavior by reinforcement
b. ​how we remember things
c. ​how people reason to solve problems
d. ​the development of language
shaping behavior by reinforcement
Operational definitions are MOST closely associated with which major advantage of the scientific approach?​
a. clarity and precision​
b. intolerance of error​
c. tolerance of error​
d. ​commonsense approach
clarity and precision​
The scientific approach requires that people specify exactly what they are talking about when they formulate hypotheses. Which advantage of scientific investigation does this illustrate?
a. ​precision
b. acceptance of a degree of error​
c. operational definitions​
d. skepticism
precision
Laura answered a series of written questions that asked about her attitudes and opinions on a number of current issues. The method of data collection that was being used in this case was​
a. direct observation
b. a questionnaire
c. archival research
d. ​a standardized psychological test
a questionnaire
Theory construction is​
a. ​a gradual iterative process that is always subject to revision
b. a circular process that typically leads nowhere
c. a process that results in concrete findings that are accepted by other scientists
d. a standard step-like process that quickly moves toward the truth
a gradual iterative process that is always subject to revision
Dr. Licciardi predicts that if people are observed while they perform a complex task, they will make more errors. Dr. Licciardi’s prediction is an example of​
a. ​a hypothesis
b. inferential statistics
c. an operational definition
d. a theory
a hypothesis
Answering the question of “why” something happens is most closely associated with which goal of science?
a. measurement and description​
b. ​the search for truth
c. application and control​
d. understanding and prediction
understanding and prediction
The use of reinforcement principles to modify a child’s unruly behavior reflects the goal of science that deals with
a. deterministic and teleological
b. ​understanding and prediction
c. application and control
d. measurement and description
application and control
Answering the question of “how” some phenomenon can be studied is most closely associated with which goal of science?
a. Measurement and description​
b. Understanding and prediction​
c. Application and control​
d. ​The search for truth
Measurement and description
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study are called​
a. confounds
b. correlations
c. ​hypotheses
d. variables
variables
A theory is​
a. a statement about the relationship between two or more variables
b. a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
c. ​an objective description of behavior
d. the application of research to practical problems
a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
A scientific theory has to be
a. accepted by others
b. ​true
c. well established and not disputed
d. testable
testable
Theories permit researchers to move from
a. ​understanding to application
b. description to understanding
c. application to control
d. concept to description
description to understanding
Scientific theories are most directly associated with which goal of science?​
a. ​Application and control
b. Measurement and description​
c. Construction and revision​
d. Understanding and prediction​
Understanding and prediction
In scientific investigations, researchers must clearly define the variables under study by precisely describing how they will be measured or controlled. These definitions are referred to as​
a. ​objective definitions
b. dictionary definitions
c. operational definitions
d. precise definitions
operational definitions
Hypotheses are typically expressed as
a. ​theories
b. predictions
c. statistics
d. variables
predictions
Which is NOT among the goals of scientific psychology?
a. searching for absolute truths about behavior​
b. applications of research findings to solve everyday problems​
c. ​the development of measurement techniques for describing behavior precisely and accurately
d. understanding why certain behaviors occur​
searching for absolute truths about behavior
The final step in a scientific investigation is to
a. decide whether or not the hypothesis was supported
b. report the findings
c. ​conduct the study
d. analyze the data
report the findings
Which of the following pairs of terms related to the goals of science are MOST clearly associated with the concept of correlation?
a. description and understanding​
b. ​understanding and prediction
c. description and prediction​
d. prediction and application
description and prediction
Which of the following is NOT true regarding commonsense analyses of behavior?​
a. They usually involve little effort to verify ideas or detect errors​
b. ​They tend to be vague and ambiguous
c. They are typically based on precise definitions and hypotheses​
d. They often tolerate contradictory generalizations
They are typically based on precise definitions and hypotheses
The scientific approach assumes that
a. each event is completely unique
b. there are no general laws or principles that apply to human behavior
c. ​events are governed by some lawful order
d. the search for absolute truth is the ultimate goal
events are governed by some lawful order
As correlation coefficients ____, the ability to predict one variable based on knowledge of the second variable increases.
a. ​become positive
b. increase in strength​
c. decrease in strength​
d. become negative
increase in strength​
A researcher plans to study the relationship between people’s smoking behavior and their tendency to have minor physical illnesses (such as colds or the flu). Most likely, he will use correlational research for the study because​
a. it is not practical or ethical to manipulate people’s smoking behavior
b. correlational studies allow the researcher to draw strong cause-and-effect conclusions
c. ​correlational studies are always the “first choice” of researchers
d. the university does not allow smoking in the psychology building
it is not practical or ethical to manipulate people’s smoking behavior.
If we view an experiment as an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship, the ____ variable would be the cause, and the ____ variable would be the effect.
a. control; experimental​
b. independent; dependent​
c. independent; confounded​
d. ​dependent; independent
independent; dependent
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical exercise improves mood. Subjects in the experimental group participate on Monday and Tuesday and those in the control group on Wednesday and Thursday. What is the independent variable?​
a. ​the hypothesis
b. the exercise​
c. the day of the week​
d. the mood (degree of happiness)
the exercise
A correlation coefficient will always have a value between
a. -10 and +10
b. ​0% and 100%
c. 0 and +1
d. -1 and +1
-1 and +1
One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is​
a. ​the inability to generate cause-and-effect conclusions
b. the length of time necessary to complete the study
c. the fact that only one variable can be studied at a time
d. the fact that experiments often can’t be done for practical or ethical reasons
he fact that experiments often can’t be done for practical or ethical reasons
Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the strongest relationship between the two variables being measured is​
a. 0.00
b. +3.45
c. ​+0.65
d. -0.89
-0.89
Suppose researchers find that greater alcohol consumption is associated with poorer performance on a skills test. Which of the following fictitious correlation coefficients could possibly represent that correlation?​
a. ​-4.57
b. -0.87​
c. +0.91​
d. +0.00
-0.87
The tendency for participants to participate in survey research appears to have​
a. declined noticeably in recent decades
b. increased for mail surveys but decreased for phone surveys
c. remained relatively constant since the early 1950s
d. ​increased noticeably in recent decades
declined noticeably in recent decades
As interest rates increase, house sales decline, indicating​
a. ​a direct correlation between the two variables
b. a positive correlation between the two variables
c. no correlation between the two variables
d. a negative correlation between the two variables
a negative correlation between the two variables
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?​
a. Deception has been fairly common in psychological research since the 1960s
b. ​Deception has never been used in psychological research
c. Although deception has been used in the past, it has recently been banned by the American Psychological Association
d. In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the use of deception in psychological research
Deception has been fairly common in psychological research since the 1960s
Which of the following statements concerning anecdotal evidence is false?​
a. Anecdotal evidence often reflects a distortion in self-report
b. Anecdotal evidence rarely influences a person’s opinion or behavior
c. Anecdotal evidence can usually be found to support any position
d. ​Anecdotal evidence is based on a single example and may reflect sampling bias
Anecdotal evidence rarely influences a person’s opinion or behavior
In an investigation of the effects of caffeine on concentration, half the participants were given regular colas that contained caffeine and half were given decaffeinated colas. In this study, the decaffeinated colas are being used as
a. the dependent variable
b. a placebo
c. ​a confounding variable
d. a random factor
a placebo
Individuals who think critically do NOT rely on anecdotal evidence because this type of evidence
a. ​is too general and can be applied to too many unrelated situations
b. can be distorted by social desirability bias
c. is based on inferential statistical analysis, which is generally unreliable
d. involves only negative instances, and cannot be used to make an unbiased decision
can be distorted by social desirability bias
Dr. Dickinson is investigating the link between social support networks and grades in school. Students in his classes are required to complete survey forms related to this research. If a survey form is not completed by the end of the semester, a student’s grade is reduced by 10 points. In this case, some researchers might argue that Dr. Dickinson’s research violates the ethical principle of​
a. ​right to privacy
b. full disclosure
c. voluntary participation
d. protection from harm
voluntary participation
Research involving the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results can be duplicated are referred to as​
a. replication studies
b. clarification studies
c. ​verification studies
d. duplication studies
replication studies
One method to control for experimenter bias effects in research is to use​
a. reverse control groups
b. a non-representative sample
c. a double-blind procedure
d. ​a socially desirable procedure
a double-blind procedure
Research has revealed that subjects who participated in research involving deception​
a. lost the ability to trust others
b. ​were psychologically distressed at being deceived
c. suffered extreme embarrassment at being “fooled”​
d. didn’t mind being misled and generally enjoyed taking part in research
didn’t mind being misled and generally enjoyed taking part in research
With regard to the topic of deception in research with human subjects, which of the following is MOST accurate?​
a. ​Researchers are careful to avoid deceiving subjects
b. It has been empirically demonstrated that deception causes severe distress
c. All psychological research must involve some deception
d. Some topics could not be investigated unless deception was used
Some topics could not be investigated unless deception was used
The subjects who participate in an experiment should​
a. ​come from a wide range of different age groups
b. ​be allowed to choose in which group they would like to be
c. ​all be chosen from the same geographical area and socioeconomic class
d. ​be carefully chosen so that they represent a sample of the population
be carefully chosen so that they represent a sample of the population
The neurotransmitter believed to be associated with schizophrenia is​
a. ​endorphin
b. ​acetylcholine
c. ​dopamine
d. ​serotonin
dopamine
Chemicals produced in the body that resemble opiates are​
a. ​dopamines
b. ​endorphins
c. ​biogenic amines
d. ​acetylcholines
endorphins
The cells of the nervous system that do the work of receiving, integrating, and transmitting information are the​
a. ​neurilemma
b. ​neurons
c. ​neuroblasts
d. ​glia
​neurons
Donavon was adopted at birth by Mr. and Mrs. Erndt. Although neither of his biological parents had much musical ability, Donavon has become an excellent pianist, just like Mr. Erndt. This information could be used as evidence to suggest that​
a. ​genetic factors have more influence than environmental factors in musical talent
b. ​environmental factors have more influence than genetic factors in musical talent
c. ​neither genetic nor environmental factors contribute to musical talent
d. ​both genetic and environmental factors contribute equally to musical talent
environmental factors have more influence than genetic factors in musical talent
Which of the following are generally considered the key functional units in hereditary transmission?​
a. ​dichromats
b. ​limens
c. ​chromosomes
d. ​genes
genes
Synaptic vesicles are structures that​
a. ​store neurotransmitters
b. ​provide energy for a neuron’s activity
c. ​control the speed with which a neuron fires
d. ​manufacture myelin
​store neurotransmitters
The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system comprise the​
a. ​afferent nervous system
b. ​peripheral nervous system
c. ​central nervous system
d. ​peripheral nervous system
peripheral nervous system
Cells found in the nervous system that insulate, nourish, and remove waste products from neurons are known as​
a. ​myelin sheaths
b. ​synapses
c. ​neurotransmitters
d. ​glia
glia
Donald and Ronald are identical twins who have been raised apart, in separate adoptive homes. However, both brothers have developed the same psychological disorder. This information could be used as evidence to suggest that​
a. ​environmental factors have more influence than genetic factors in this disorder
b. ​genetic factors have more influence than environmental factors in this disorder
c. ​neither genetic nor environmental factors contribute to this disorder
d. ​both genetic and environmental factors contribute equally to this disorder
genetic factors have more influence than environmental factors in this disorder
According to the ____ law, a neuron fires an action potential at only one level of intensity.
a. ​threshold
b. ​all-or-none
c. ​action
d. ​refractory
all-or-none
An elderly person has a stroke that leaves her unable to talk and part of her body paralyzed. Which part of the body is MOST likely to be paralyzed?​
a. ​upper body
b. ​right side
c. ​upper body
d. ​left side
right side
Olds and Milner (1954) found that rats will endlessly stimulate a pleasure center in the __________ when an electrode is implanted there.​
a. ​brainstem
b. ​corpus callosum
c. ​frontal lobe of the occipital cortex
d. ​limbic system
limbic system
Recent research suggests that the two hemispheres of the brain​
a. ​are linked primarily in the hindbrain
b. ​operate independently for most complex cognitive tasks
c. ​are in constant collaboration
d. ​cannot be adequately studied with current brain imaging techniques
​are in constant collaboration
In humans, the prefrontal cortex accounts for ____ of the cerebral cortex.
a. ​just over 10%
b. ​approximately one-third
c. ​less than 5%
d. ​nearly one-half
approximately one-third
Research involving tasks such as recognizing words or musical melodies has shown that​
a. ​the dominant hemisphere is superior to the other hemisphere on most tasks
b. ​on a specific type of task, the superiority of one hemisphere over the other is usually quite modest
c. ​right-handed individuals outperform left-handed individuals on verbal tasks
d. ​most tasks are controlled by only one hemisphere
on a specific type of task, the superiority of one hemisphere over the other is usually quite modest
Which of the following brain structures is MOST closely associated with the regulation of emotion?​
a. ​limbic system
b. ​cerebellum
c. ​brainstem
d. ​reticular formation
limbic system
Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?​
a. ​thalamus
b. ​limbic system
c. ​hypothalamus
d. ​cerebrum
thalamus
Chase is using a single earphone to listen in on a conversation. Based on the research that investigated hemispheric specialization in intact brains, you might suggest that he will recognize the words he hears most quickly if he​
a. ​closes his eyes while he listens to the conversation
b. ​keeps switching the earphone from ear to ear
c. ​puts the earphone in his left ear
d. ​puts the earphone in his right ear
puts the earphone in his right ear
The drunken driving suspect was unable to hold his hand out to the side and bring his finger to a stop on his nose because one of the brain structures depressed first by alcohol is the​
a. ​hypothalamus
b. ​corpus callosum
c. ​medulla
d. ​cerebellum
cerebellum
Elizabeth just caught sight of a red hummingbird. The neural impulses from her eye will eventually travel to her occipital lobe, but first they must pass through​
a. ​the hypothalamus
b. ​the thalamus
c. ​the reticular formation
d. ​the amygdale
the thalamus
Current thinking on memory is that memories are consolidated in the ____ and stored in the ____.​
a. cerebellum; hippocampus​
b. ​limbic system; cerebellum
c. cortex; limbic system​
d. hippocampal region; cortex
hippocampal region; cortex
According to the notion of semantic networks, which pair of words should be linked most closely?​
a. tree-bird​
b. fill-feed​
c. ​car-nose
d. boat-goat
tree-bird
Which of the following statements concerning schemas is NOT correct?​
a. Schemas sometimes make individuals more likely to remember unusual events
b. ​Schemas sometimes cause individuals to remember information inaccurately
c. People are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas
d. Schemas always result in increasing the accuracy of individual’s memory
Schemas always result in increasing the accuracy of individual’s memory
Baddeley’s concept of working memory​
a. expands the functions and processes of long-term memory
b. expands the functions and processes of short-term memory
c. ​integrates sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory into a single, complex system
d. takes the place of the old concept of sensory memory
expands the functions and processes of short-term memory
When information in long-term memory (LTM) is organized according to a clustering principle, it means that​
a. ​items that occurred close together in time are grouped together in LTM
b. related items tend to be remembered in groups or categories
c. words that look alike are grouped together in LTM
d. people create a network of nodes in LTM, with links to related concepts
related items tend to be remembered in groups or categories
Ruben and Maya are describing their recent trip to Brazil. They describe all the interesting things they did while they were there and all the interesting people that they met. In describing their trip, Ruben and Maya are largely relying on their​
a. ​episodic memory
b. procedural memory
c. ​semantic memory
d. prospective memory
episodic memory
Your memory of how to do something, such as how to shoot a free throw in basketball, is contained in your​
a. nondeclarative memory
b. episodic memory
c. ​declarative memory
d. ​semantic memory
nondeclarative memory
Brock was describing the inside of his doctor’s office to one of his friends. In his description, he mentions that there were two diplomas on the wall, even though this doctor does not have any diplomas displayed. Brock’s error in recall illustrates​
a. the role of schemas in long-term memory
b. ​the role of semantic networks in long-term memory
c. the need for a good executive control system in short-term memory
d. the need for conceptual hierarchies in long-term memory
the role of schemas in long-term memory
The ____ component of working memory serves as the interface between working and long-term memory.​
a. executive control system​
b. ​episodic buffer CorrectCorrect
c. visuospatial sketchpad​
d. semantic buffer
episodic buffer
Dave is thrown from his motorcycle and suffers a severe blow to the head, resulting in loss of memory for events that occurred before the accident. This is an example of​
a. ​retrograde amnesia
b. anterograde amnesia
c. retroactive interference
d. motivated forgetting
retrograde amnesia
What makes psychological research scientific?
empirical evidence, data, research methods, scientific method and systematic research
What is the definition of psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Who contributed to Behavioral Psychology?
-John B. Watson
-Ivan Pavlov
-B.F. Skinner
Who contributed to Psychoanalytic Psychology?
-Sigmund Fred
-Carl Jung
-Alfred Adler
Who contributed to Humanistic Psychology?
-Carl Rogers
-Abraham Maslow
Who contributed to Cognitive Psychology?
-Jean Piaget
-Naom Chomsky
-Herbert Simon
Who contributed to Biological Psychology?
-James Olds
-Roger Sperry
-David Hubel
-Torsten Wiesel
Who contributed to Evolutionary Psychology?
-David Buss
-Martin Daly
-Margo Wilson
-Leda Cosmides
-John Tooby
Influential Period of Behavioral Psychology
1913-Present
Influential Period of Psychoanalytic Psychology
1900-Present
Influential Period of Humanistic Psychology
1950’s-Present
Influential Period of Cognitive Psychology
1950’s-Present
Influential Period of Biological Psychology
1950’s-Present
Influential Period of Evolutionary Psychology
1980’s-Present
What is the focus of Behavioral Psychology?
Effects of the environment on the behavior of humans and animals
What is the focus of Psychoanalytic Psychology?
Unconscious determinants of behavior
What is the focus of Humanistic Psychology?
Unique aspects of human experience
What is the focus of Cognitive Psychology?
Mental Process
What is the focus of Biological Psychology?
Physiological, genetic, and neural bases of behavior in humans and animals
What is the focus of Evolutionary Psychology?
evolution bases of behavior in humans and animals
What branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout a life span?
Developmental Psychology
What branch of psychology that studies how individuals think and behave in social situations?
Social Psychology
What branch of psychology that studies how people learn and the best way teach?
Educational Psychology
What branch of psychology that studies cognitive and behavioral principles that promotes physical well being?
Health Psychology
What branch of psychology that studies the influence of genetic factors, the body, and chemicals in the body has on the effect of behavior?
Physiological Psychology
What branch of psychology that studies the behavior and thinking using the experimental method?
Experimental Psychology
What branch of psychology that studies the memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, decision making and creativity?
Cognitive Psychology
What branch of psychology that studies the measurements of human abilities, attitudes, and traits?
Psychometric
What branch of psychology that studies the factors that shape personality and with personality assessment?
Personality
What type of observation is done in laboratory in the case of experimental study?
Controlled observation
What type of observation involves studying the spontaneous behaviour of participants in their natural surroundings?
Natural observation
What type of observation is when the observer is participating in the activity?
Participant observation
What research method manipulates an independent variable under controlled conditions?
Experiment
What research method is an in-depth analysis of the behavior of one person or a small group of people?
Case Study
What research method is a descriptive research method in with participants are asked the same questions?
Surveys
What is an advantage of using an experimental research method?
-Precise control over variables
-Researchers are able to draw conclusions about cause and effect relationships between variables
What is a disadvantage of using experimental research method?
Lab situations are often artificial
What is an advantage of using a naturalistic observation research method?
By being able to observe the flow of behaviour in its own settings
What is a disadvantage of using a naturalistic observation research method?
Other variables cannot be controlled
What is an advantage of using a case study as a research method?
Individual cases can provide compelling illustrations to support or undermine a theory
What is a disadvantage of using a case study as a research method?
-Researchers are unable to draw causal conclusions
-Clinical sample are often unrepresentative
Sampling bias can occur
What is an advantage of using a survey as a research method?
-Easy to collect
-Saves money
suited for gathering data on attitudes, values, and beliefs from large sample
What is a disadvantage of using a survey as a research method?
Unreliable, due to intentional deception, social desirability bias, memory lapses, and poor wording of questions
What makes a positive correlation?
-Coefficient is between 0 and 1
-Represents a stronger tendency
What makes a negative correlation?
-Coefficient is between -1 and 0
-Represents a weaker tendency
What is an independent variable?
A variable that affects the change in the dependent variable
What is a dependent variable?
A variable that is thought to be affected based on the change of the independent variable
What is the cell body of a neuron called?
What is the cell body of a neuron called?
Soma
What is the branching structure that receives the signals from other cells of a neuron called?
What is the branching structure that receives the signals from other cells of a neuron called?
Dendrites
What is the fiber that carries signals away from the soma to other cells of a neuron called?
What is the fiber that carries signals away from the soma to other cells of a neuron called?
Axon
What is the insulting material that encases the axon
Myelin sheath
What is the function of a neuron?
transmits information throughout the body
What is the Cerebellum, Medulla, and Pons part of?
Hindbrain
What part of the hindbrain that coordinates fine muscle movement and balance
cerebellum
What part of the hindbrain regulates unconscious functions throughout the body?
medulla
What part of the hindbrain involves in sleeping and arousal?
pons
What part of the brain involves in locating things in space and controls the dopamine synthesis?
Midbrain
What is the Cerebrum, Thalamus, Limbic system, and Hypothalamus part of?
Forebrain
What part of the Forebrain handles complex mental activities, such as sensing, learning, thinking, and planning?
Cerebrum
What part of the Forebrain relay center for cortex; distributes incoming sensory signals, expect smell? (A relay system)
Thalamus
What part of the Forebrain that loosely connected network that contributes to emotion, memory, motivation, and reward? (seat of emotion)
Limbic system
What part of the Forebrain regulates basic biological needs, such as hunger, thirst, and sex? (regulator of biological needs)
Hypothalamus
What is the Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, and Occiptal lobes part of? (seat of complex thought)
Cerebrum
What part of the Cerebrum is primary motor cortex?
Frontal Lobe
What part of the Frontal Lobe that makes house executive control system to planning and organization?
Prefrontal cortex
What part of the Cerebrum is primary somatosensory cortex?
Parietal Lobe
What part of the Cerebrum is primary auditory cortex?
Temporal Lobes
What part of the Cerebrum is primary visual cortex?
Occipital Lobe
What is the Hippocampus and Amygdala part of?
Limbic System
What part of the Limbic System contributes to memory?
Hippocampus
What part of the Limbic System has to deal with emotions?
Amygdala
What is the Nervous system that is everywhere that is not the spinal cord or brain?
Peripheral nervous system
What is the Nervous system that is only the spinal cord or brain?
Central nervous system
What are the two subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system?
Somatic and Autonomic nervous systems
What nervous system controls the nerves that connects to the voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory receptors?
Somatic Nervous System
What nervous system controls the nerves that control the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands.
Autonomic Nervous System
What nervous system controls the fight or flight response
Sympathetic Nervous System
What nervous system controls the conservation of energy and digestive system?
Parasympathetic Nervous System
What part of the the brain is made up of a bridge of fibers that pass information between the two cerebral hemispheres?
Corpus callosum
What is it called the very brief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge?
Action Potential
What side of the brain usually handles verbal processing, including language, speech, reading and writing?
Left Hemisphere
What side of the brain usually handles nonverbal processing, including spatial and music processing, and visual recognition tasks?
Right Hemisphere
What type of interference occurs when you cannot learn a new task because of an old task?
Proactive interference
What type of interference occurs when you forget a previously learned task due to the learning of a new task
Retroactive interference