Psychology in Everyday Life ch. 10

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Stress
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the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
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Fight-or-flight response
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an emergency response, including activity of the sympathetic nervous system, that mobilizes energy and activity for attacking or escaping a threat.
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General adaptation syndrome (GAS)
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Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages-alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
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Tend and Befriend
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under stress, people (especially women) often provide support to others and bond with and seek support from others.
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Other stress reactions
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Withdrawal or paralyzed
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Psychoneutroimmunolgy
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the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes combine to affect our immune system and health. studies our mind-body reactions
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Stress Effects and Health
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Immune system is affected by age, nutrition, genetics, body temperature, and stress.
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Immune System Reacting Too Strongly
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Self-attacking diseases, some forms of arthritis, and allergic reaction
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Immune System Under Reacting
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Bacterial infection flare, formant herpes virus erupt, and cancer cells multiply
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Animal studies
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stress of adjustment in monkeys caused weakened immune system.
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Human studies
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stress related to surgical wound healing and development of colds. low stress may increase effectiveness of vaccinations.
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Stress and AIDS
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Stress cannot give people AIDS, but nah speed transition from HIV infection to AIDS and the decline in those with AIDS.
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Stress and Cancer
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Stress doesn’t create cancer cells, but may affect growth by weakening natural defenses.
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Stress and Heart Disease
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600,000 North American coronary heart disease related death yearly. Stress related to generation of inflammation which is associated with heart and other health problems. Meyer- stress predicted heart attack risk for tax accountants. Type A men are more likely to have heart attack. Conley- stress related to everyday academic stressors in students.
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Type A
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Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.
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Type B
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Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people.
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Type D
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Term for people who suppress negative emotion to avoid social disapproval
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Problem-Focused Coping
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attempting to reduce stress directly-by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
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Emotion-Focused Coping
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attempting to reduce stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction.
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Personal Control
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our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless.
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Learned Helplessness
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the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
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External locus of control
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the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determined our fate
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Internal locus of control
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the perception that we control our own fate/destiny. They achieve more in school, work, act more independently, better health.
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Social support helps fight illness in 2 ways:
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it calms cardiovascular system, which lowers blood pressure, and stress hormone levels. It fights illness by fostering stronger immune functioning.
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Managing Stress Effects
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Aerobic exercise: involves sustained activity that increases heart and lung fitness; reduces stress, depression, and anxiety. Can weaken the influence of genetic risk for obesity. Increases the quality and \”quantity\” of life by 2 years. Faith communities and health: Faith Factor, religious involvement predicts health and longevity.

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