Psychology chapter two

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What is Personality
A distinctive pattern of behavior ,mannerism, thought, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual over time and across different situations.
A____________ is a habitual way of behaving, thinking and feeling
trait
The first theory of psychodynamic theory was developed by
Sigmund Freud
Which compent of personality is present at birth and is the resvior of unconscious psychological energies and to avoid pain and obtain pleasure
The ID
which compent of personality is the referee between the needs of instinct and the demands of society
The EGO
Psychodynamic theories share all of the following general elements except
an emphasis on conscious process within the mind
in psychoanalysis, the part of the personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards is called
the superego
during a grade school field trip Ryan and his friends were running down a hill when he stepped on a snake. He was unharmed but shaken by the experience. When one of his friends motioned the event months later he couldn’t remember running down the hill. Freud would say this is an example of what
repression
____________ occurs when a persons own unacceptable or threating feelings are repressed then attributed to someone else
projection
what are the stages of psychosexual in order from birth
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
four year old Lyndsey squeezes between mommy and daddy on the couch, she cuddles her daddy while refusing to kiss her mommy. this illustrates what concept.
Oedipus complex
according to _____________ there is a collective unconscious shared by all human beings containing universal memories, symbols, and images that are the legacy of human history.
Carl Jung
Carl Jung would agree that
darth Vader and dragons represent the shawdow archetype
___________ are standardized questionaries’ requiring written answers
objective tests
___________ recognized that most people possess five to ten central traits that reflect characteristics ways of thinking and acting
Gordon Allport
According to Gordon Allport, most individuals have ____________ central traits that reflect a characteristic way of behaving, dealing with others, and reacting to new situations
five to ten
______________ describes the extent to which people are outgoing or shy
Extroversion vs introversion
_______________ describes the extent to which people are anxious and impulsive
neuroticism vs emotional stability
___________ describes the extent to which people are imaginative and questioning or conforming and predictable
openness to experience vs resistance to new experiences
Raymond Cattell advanced the study of personality by
using factor analysis
Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways are present in infancy. These dispositions, called _________________ are assumed to be innate
temperaments
During mildly stressful tasks, colleen shows sympathetic nervous system activity, such as an increase in her heart rate and the dilation of her pupils. Jerome kagan would classify colleen as an
reactive child
when considering the influence of hentics on personality, which of the following is true
A genetic predispositions does not necessarily imply genetic inevitability
_____________ is a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group
heritability
In social cognitive theories ____________ is the two way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspect of the individual in the shaping of personality traits
reciprocal determinism
in behavioral genetic research ______________ includes the family background in which you grew up and the experiences you shared with your siblings and parents
the shared environment
In behavior genetic research ____________ includes unique aspects of a persons experience such as winning the lead in the school play
the non share environment
Dakotas parents place high value on academic achievement but his peers do not. in the this situation
Dakota will be more influenced by his peers
_____________ is defined as a program a program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a society, and a set of balues, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community
culture
which of the following is true of an individualist culture
the independence of the individual takes precedence over the needs of the group
____________ cultures are described as those in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships
collectivists
on his first overseas business trip mr.streeter finds it rude that he is constantly kept waiting. After all his appointments were set up a week in advance through email. it is most likely that his business trip has taken him to
the middle east
in which region of the US are rates of whit homicide highest
South
Studies of altruistic behavior found that children from ________ were the least altruistic and most egotistic of those studied
the united states
prof hirth takes a humanist approach to personality. she would most likely agree that the most influential aspect of human personality is
our capacity to shape our own future
according to Abraham maslow, the most important aspect of personality are
the qualities of the self actualized person
IF parents accept carl rogers approach to personality development the they are likely to respond in which of the following ways when their daughter kicks her little brother
our rule is it is not ok to hurt one another
what is the third force in psychology
psychoanalysis
rollo may would be most likely to agree that
our personalities reflect the ways we cope with the inevitable struggle to find meaning in life
the major criticism of humanist theories of personality is that
many of the humanist assumptions are untestable
Freud believed that unconscious conflicts have more power over human behavior that do our conscious intentions
T
Although defense mechanisms distort reality, they also protect us from anxiety.
T
Carl Jungs theory of personality emphasizes the methods of empirical psychology in generating personality constructs
F
according to object relations theory a baby constructs unconscious representations of his or her parents, which will influence the child’s relations with other throughout life
T
central traits are changeable aspects of personality such as musical preferences, habits, and casual opions
F
the big five personality traits represent all the traits that make up personality
F
Temperament fluctuate dramatically over time
F
Social cognitive learning theory emphasis the continual interaction between persons and a given situations
T
Most parents have a single child rearing style that they use consistently with all there children
f
The unknown t or f
T

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