Psychology: Chapter 3

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Neurons
Nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system
Dendrite
cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons
Axon
part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons
Terminal buttons
small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons
Myelin Sheath
protective coat of fat and protein that wraps
around axons
How Neurons Fire
Transmit an electrical
impulse along the axon
All-or-one law
the rule that neurons are either on or off
Action potential
electric nerve impulse that travels through a neuron’s axon when it is set off by a “trigger,” changing neuron’s charge from negative to positive
Synapse
space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages
Neurotransmitters
chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiving neuron
Excitatory messages
chemical messages that make it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon
Inhibitory messages
chemical messages that prevent or decrease the likelihood that a receiving
neuron will fire
Reuptake
the reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button
Central Nervous System
part of the nervous system that
includes the brain and the spinal cord
Spinal cord
a bundle of neurons that leaves the brain and runs down the length of the back and is the main means for transmitting messages between the brain and the body
Sensory (afferent) neurons
neurons that transmit information from the perimeter of the body to the central nervous system
Moter (efferent) neurons
neurons that communicate information from the nervous system to muscles and glands
Interneurons
connect sensory and motor neurons, carrying messages between the two
Glial cells
“glue”
Peripheral nervous system
the part of the nervous system that includes the autonomic and somatic subdivisions
Somatic division
the part of the peripheral nervous system that specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs
Autonomic division
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary movement of the heart, glands, lungs, and other organs
Sympathetic division
the part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations, engaging all the organism’s resources to respond to a threat
Parasympathetic division
the part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to calm the body after an emergency has ended
The Endocrine System
-Chemical communication network via the
bloodstream
-Main job: secrete hormones (also chemical messengers)
-Hormones and neurotransmitters share similarities and differences
The Pituitary Gland
-“Master Gland”
-Controls the functioning of the entire endocrine system
-Regulated by the hypothalamus
-Secretes the hormones that control growth
Heart
makes hormone lowering blood sodium
Liver and kidneys
regulate production of red blood cells
Pancreas
creates insulin to regulate blood sugar
Stomach and small intestine
secrete hormones that aid digestion and regulate pancreatic activity
Central core
the “old brain” which controls basic functions
such as eating and sleeping and is common to all vertebrates
Medulla (hindbrain)
controls many critical body functions, including breathing and the heartbeat
Pons (hindbrain)
transmits motor information, coordinating muscles and movement between the right and left halves of the body
Cerebellum (hindbrain)
part of the brain controlling bodily balance
Reticular formation (midbrain)
part of the brain extending from the medulla through the pons; made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal
Thalamus (forebrain)
located in the middle of the central core; acts
primarily to relay information about the senses
Hypothalamus (forebrain)
tiny part of the brain; maintains the body’s internal balance and regulates vital behavior such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior
The Limbic System
-The “Animal” brain
-Controls a variety of functions relating to emotions and self- preservation, like eating, aggression, and reproduction
-Learning and memory is also involved
Motor area
Largely responsible for body’s voluntary movements
Sensory area
-Brain tissue that corresponds to the different senses, with the
degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue
-Contains areas relating to sight, sound, and body sensations (like touch)
-Somatosensory area
-Auditory area
-Visual area
Association areas
major regions of the cerebral cortex; sites of higher mental processes – thought, language, memory, and speech
Hemispheres
-symmetrical left and right halves of the brain
that control the side of the body opposite to their location
-Left: logical, Right: creativity
Lateralization
dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions, such as language
________ are the most basic units of nervous system.
Neurons
The ________ is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
Central Nervous System
The ________ is the part of the brain controls basic functions like eating and sleeping.
Central core
The major goal of _________ is to identify behavior patterns that are a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.
Evolutionary psychology
The part of the peripheral nervous system that specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs is the _______.
Somatic division
The space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron is called the ________.
Synapse
_________ are chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to receptor sites on a receiving neuron.
Neurotransmitters
The _________ is a chemical communication network that sends messages throughout the body via the bloodstream.
Endocrine system

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