Psychology Chapter 1 Module 1-3

Psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

Behavioral Perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that focuses on the role of learning in explaining observable behavior.

Developmental Perspective
First half of life; focus on learning new competencies and skills
Basically the same as the nature vs. nurture issue.

Evolutionary Perspective
Examines human thoughts and actions in terms of natural selection. Stresses that some traits might be advantageous for survival and that these traits would be passed down from the parents to the next generation.

Psychodynamic
A psychological perspective that analyzes how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.

Psychoanalytic
A method of treating mental illness, originating with Sigmund Freud, in which a psychiatrist (analyst) helps a patient discover and confront the causes of the illness.

Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

Humanistic Perspective
An explanation for behavior which suggests that humans strive for self-fulfillment and are motivated by a basic goodness. Developed originally by Carl Rogers.

William James
American philosopher and psychologist who founded psychology in the United states and established the psychological school called functionalism.

Biopsychosocial
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.

Wilhelm Wundt
A physiologist, philosopher; was the 1st to call himself a Psychologist; created a laboratory to explore the nature of religious beliefs, identify mental disorders and abnormal behavior, and find damage parts of the brain; he believed that scientific psychology should focus on analyzing consciousness, a person’s subjective experience of the world and mind.

Structuralism
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.

Functional Psychology
Studies the relation between the environment and the response of the organism to the environment. There is no meaningful distinction between mind and body, they are part of the same entity.

Introspection
A method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings

John B. Watson
American psychologist who founded behaviorism, emphasizing the study of observable behavior and rejecting the study of mental processes.

B. F. Skinner
Was a psychologist, behaviorist and social philosopher.

Humanism
An outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. Humanist beliefs stress the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems.

Behaviorism
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.

Cognitive Neuroscience
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

Cognitive Psychology
Is a subdiscipline of psychology exploring internal mental processes. It is the study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems.

Critical Thinking
Set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open-minded and careful fashion.

Hindsight Bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. “I knew it all along”

Clinical Psychologist
A psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances.

Health Psychologist
Psychologists who study the effects of behavior and mental processes on health and illness, and vice versa.

Positive Psychologist
The study of human strengths, virtues, & effective functions.

Theory
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.

Descriptive Research
To observe and record behavior; it’s conducted by doing case studies, naturalistic observations, or surveys; its weaknesses are no control of variables, and single cases may be misleading.

Survey Research
Gathering primary data by asking people questions about their knowledge, attitudes, preferences, and buying behavior.

Population Sample
People you are conducting the research on a small group.

Random Sample
A group of subjects representing the population who are selected through chance.

Operational
A statement of the produce used to define research variable, such as aggression or intelligence.

Independent Variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

Dependent Variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

Observational Studies
A research method involving the collection of data by carefully watching and recording behavior as it occurs.

Case Studies
A single individual is studied intensely to examine a problem or issue relevant to that person.

Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

Experimental Research
A technique in which the investigator actively manipulates the environment to observe its effect on behavior.

Positive Correlation
A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction.

Negative Correlation
The relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other variable decreases.

Correlation Coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

Random Assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.

Correlational Research
A research strategy that identifies the relationships between two or more variables in order to describe how these variables change together. One advantage is that it helps psychologists make predictions.

Statistical Significance
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

Correlational Language
Linked with/to; tied to; associated with; predicts

Causal Language
Leads to; causes; affects; has an effect; improves; reduces/increases

Community Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.

Experiment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.

Control Group
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

Double-blind Procedure
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

Counseling Psychology
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

Basic Research
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

Applied Research
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

Psychiatry
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy

Behavior Genetics
How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.

Neuroscience
How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.

Evolutionary
Examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations.

Social-Cultural
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.