Psychology CH 3 Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind

consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
dual processing
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
blindsight
a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it
parallel processing
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, enables your mind to do routine business
sequential processing
best for solving new problems
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
cocktail party effect
your ability to attend to only one voice among many
inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
change blindness
failing to notice changes in the environment
circadian rythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
rapid eye movement sleep (REM)
a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
non-REM stage 1 sleep (NREM-1)
The transitioninto sleep is marked by the slowed breathing and irregular brain waves
in what stage of sleep may you experience fantastical images resembling hallucinations; you may have a sensation of falling (at which moment your body may suddenly jerk) or of floating weightlessly.
NREM-1
After NREM-1 you relax more deeply and begin about 20 minutes of NREM-2 sleep, with its periodic _________—bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity.
sleep spindles
During this slow-wave sleep, which lasts for about 30 minutes, your brain emits large, slow delta waves and you are hard to awaken.
NREM-3
during _____ sleep your heart rate rises, your breathing becomes rapid and irregular, and every half-minute or so your closed eyes dart around in momentary bursts of activity.
REM
during what sleep stage do your genitals become aroused?
REM
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
a pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm. In response to light, the SCN causes the pineal gland to adjust melatonin production, thus modifying our feelings of sleepiness.
5 reasons we need sleep
1. sleep protects
2. sleep helps us recuperate
3. sleep helps restore and rebuild fading memories of the day’s experiences
4. sleep feeds creative thinking
5. sleep supports growth
effects of sleep loss
1. no energy
2. bad mood
3. depression
4. weight gain
5. weak immune system
6. slow responses
ghrelin
hunger-arousing hormone, increased by sleep deprivation
leptin
hunger-decreasing hormone, decreased by sleep deprivation
is metabolic rate increased or decreased by sleep deprivation
decreased
cortisol
a stress hormone that stimulates the body to make fat, increased by sleep deprivation
what enhances limbic brain responses to the mere sight of food and decreases cortical inhibition?
sleep deprivation
insomnia
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
dream
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities and incongruities, and for the dreamer’s delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content).
why do we dream?
1. to satisfy our wishes
2. to file away memories
3. to develop and preserve neural pathways
4. to make sense of neural static
5. to reflect cognitive development
REM rebound
he tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).
substance use disorder
continued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk.
psychoactive drugs
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.
tolerance
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect.
neuroadaptation
With continued use of alcohol and some other drugs (not marijuana), the user’s brain chemistry adapts to offset the drug effect
addiction
compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors (such as gambling) despite known adverse consequences.
withdrawl
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing an addictive drug or behavior
depressants
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
effects of alcohol
1. slowed neural processing
2. memory disruption
3. reduced self-awareness and self-control
4. expectancy effects
alcohol use disorder
alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal, and a drive to continue problematic use.
barbituates
drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. (Nembutal, Seconal, Amytal)
opiates
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. (heroine, morphine, codeine)
stimulant
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, Ecstasy, and methamphetamine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
amphetamines
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
nicotine
a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco.
cocaine
a powerful and addictive stimulant derived from the coca plant; produces temporarily increased alertness and euphoria.
methamphetamine
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
ecstacy (MDMA)
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
hallucinogens
psychedelic (“mind-manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
near-death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
LSD
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid
THC
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
Which of the following is an example of a psychologically induced altered state of consciousness?

a. Tasha is experiencing hallucinations from the anesthesia her dentist gave her when he extracted her wisdom teeth.
b. Kyle cannot remember the last two pages he just read because he was drifting in and out of drowsiness.
c. Deirdre has just entered a state of hypnosis with the aid of a psychologist.
d. Sofie is having a dream about riding in a sailboat.

c
As the lab assistant reaches for the form he drops it behind the counter. He drops down behind the counter to pick up the form, but, unbeknownst to Janis, another person stands up holding the form. After Janis signs the form, she is asked if she noticed the change. She replies that she did not. This phenomenon is known as:

a. inattentional blindness.
b. change blindness.
c. the cocktail party effect.
d. blindsight.

b. change blindness
Michael and his girlfriend are listening to a lecture on an author’s travels through Eastern Europe. After listening for an hour be becomes drowsy and his head begins dropping forward, until his girlfriend elbows his arm to wake him up. Michael’s drowsiness is an example of an altered state of consciousness that occurs:
a. psychologically.
b. willfully .
c. spontaneously.
d.consciously.
c. spontaneously
_____ provide(s) insight into the sleep cycle without requiring personal descriptions of nighttime experiences.
a. Sleep surveys
b. An EEG
c. Naturalistic observation
d. An EMG
b. an EEG
Studies find that _____ percent of cocaine users become addicted after _____ years of use.
a. 40 to 45; 10
b. 15 to 16; 10
c. 25 to 30; 5
d. 15 to 16; 3
b.
Most school-age and college students:
a. underestimate how much their peers are using drugs.
b. overestimate how much their peers are using drugs.
c. are accurate predictors about self and peer drug use.
d. can accurately predict their peers’ drug dependency but not their own.
b. overestimate
Whenever Tom uses cocaine he experiences intense euphoria, mental alertness, and increased self-confidence. These psychological responses occur because:
a. cocaine increases the amounts of dopamine, adenosine, and norepinephrine released into the synaptic gap between neurons.
b. cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which increases the effects of these neurotransmitters.
c. cocaine causes an increase in the reuptake of dopamine, and this speeds up the removal of dopamine from the synaptic gap.
d. cocaine increases the number of dopamine and serotonin receptors, which speeds up the absorption of these neurotransmitters.
b
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