Psychology Ch.2

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Terminal Buttons
Small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons
Thalamus
The part of the brain located in the middle of the central core that acts primarily to relay information about the senses
Neurons
nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system
Dendrite
a cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons.
Axon
the part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other.
Terminal buttons
small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons.
Myelin sheath
a protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon
All-or-none Law
the rule that neurons are either on or off
Resting state
the state in which there is a negative electrical charge of about 70millivolts within a neuron
Action potential
an electric nerve impulse that travels through a neuron’s axon when it is set off by a “trigger,” changing the neuron’s charge from negative to positive.
Mirror neurons
specialized neurons that fire not only when a person enacts a particular behavior, but also when a person simply observes another individual carrying out the same behavior.
Synapse
the space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages.
Neurotransmitters
chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite ( and sometimes the cell body of a receiver neuron.
Excitatory message
a chemical message that makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon.
Inhibitory message
a chemical message that prevents or decreases the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire.
Reuptake
the reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button.
Acetylcholine
effects the excitatory in the brain and autonomic nervous system; inhibitory elsewhere. Function: muscle movement cognitive functioning and memory.
Glutamate
memory
Gamma-amino butric acid
function: eating, aggression, sleeping.
Dopamine
movement control, pleasure and reward attention.
Serotonin
Sleeping, eating, mood, pain, depression.
Endorphins
pain suppression pleasurable feelings appetites, placebos.
Central
nervous system (CNS) – the part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord.
Spinal cord
a bundle of neurons that leaves the brain and runs down the length of the back and is the main means for transmitting messages between the brain and the body.
Reflex
an automatic, involuntary response to an incoming stimulus.
Sensory (afferent) neurons
neurons that transmit information from the perimeter of the body to the central nervous system.
Motor (efferent) neurons
neurons that communicate information from the nervous system to muscles and glands.
Interneurons
neurons that connect sensory and motor neurons, carrying messages between the two
Peripheral nervous system
the part of the nervous system that includes the autonomic and somatic subdivisions; made up of neurons with long axons and dendrites, it branches out from the spainal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body.
Somatic division
the part of the peripheral nervous system that specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs
Autonomic division
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary movement of the heart, glands, lungs, and other organs.
Sympathetic division
the part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situation, engaging all the organism’s resources to respond to a threat.
Parasympathetic division
the part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to clam the body after an emergency has ended.
Behavioral genetics
the study of the effects of heredity on behavior
Endocrine system
a chemical (hormones) communication network that sends messages throughout the body via the bloodstream.
Hormones
chemicals that circulate through the blood and regulate the functioning or growth of the body.
Pituitary gland
the major component of the endocrine system, or “master gland,” which secretes hormones that control growth and other part of the endocrine system.
Oxytocin
Is the root of many of life’s, satisfaction and pleasures. In new mothers it can produces an urge to nurse newborns offspring, it encourages sexually active males to seek out females more passionately, and females to be more receptive to males sexual advances. Also relates to the development of trust in others.
Effects if steroid abuse
add muscle weight and increase strength, can lead to heart attack, strokes, cancer and even violent behavior.
EEG
electroencephalogram, records electrical activity in the brain through electrodes placed on the outside of the skull.
fMRI
functional magnetic resonance imaging, scans provide a detailed, three-dimensional computer-generated image of brain structures and activity by aiming a powerful magnetic field at the body.
PET
positron emission tomography, scans show biochemical activity within the brain at a given moment.
TMS
transcranial magnetic stimulation imaging, is one of the newest types of scan. By exposing a tiny region of the brain to a strong magnetic field, TMS causes a momentary interruption of electrical activity.
Central core
the “old brain,” which controls basic function such as eating and sleeping and is common to all vertebrates.
Cerebellum
the part of the brain that controls bodily balance.
Reticular formation
the part of the brain extending from the medulla through the pons and made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal.
Thalamus
the part of the brain located in the middle of the central core that acts primarily to information about the sense
Hypothalamus
a tiny part of the brain, located below the thalamus, that maintains homeostasis and produces and regulates vital behavior, such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior. Watches body temperature and watches the amount of nutrition stored in cells.
Limbic system –
the part of the brain that controls eating, aggression and reproduction.
Medulla
controls a number of critical body function, the most important of which are breathing and heartbeat.
Cerebral cortex
the “new brain” responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain; contains four lobes.
Lobes
the four major sections of the cerebral cortex: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital.
Motor area
the part of the cortex that is largely responsible for the body’s voluntary movement.
Sensory area
the site in the brain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue. ( touch and pressure)
Association areas
one of the major regions of the cerebral cortex; the site of the higher mental processes such as thoughts, language, memory and speech.
Neuroplasticity
changes in the brain that occur throughout the life span relating to the addition of the new neurons, new interconnections between neurons and the reorganization of the information-processing areas
Neurogenesis
the creation of new neurons.
Hemispheres
symmetrical left and right halves of the brain that control the side of the body opposite to their location.
Lateralization
the dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions, such as language.
Biofeedback
a procedure in which a person learns to control through conscious thought internal physiological processes such as blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, skin temperature, sweating , and the constriction of particular muscles.
Right brain
right brain controls the left body, understanding of spatial relationships, recognition of patters and drawing, music, and emotional expression.
left brain
left brain controls the right body, concentrate more on tasks like speaking, reading, thinking, reasoning.

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