psychology ch 13 continued Essay

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behaviorist
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researcher who uses principles of conditioning to explain the actions and reactions of both animals and humans
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social cognitive theorist
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researchers who emphasize the influence of social and cognitive factors of learning
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habits
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a set of learned responses that make up personality as believed by behaviorists
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traditional behaviorist
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attribute shy personality as a result of a child avoiding a strict parent’s attention that would result in fewer punishments so that avoidance is negatively reinforced causing later the child to avoid all authority figures
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social cognitive learning theorists
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emphasize both the influences of other people’s behavior and of a person’s own expectations on learning,
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social cognitive learning
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holds that observational learning, modeling, and other cognitive learning techniques can lead to the formation of patterns of personality
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social cognitive view
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behavior is governed not just by the influence of external stimuli and response patterns but also by cognitive processes; Bandura
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Bandura
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believes that 3 factors influence one another in determining the patterns of behavior that make up personality: the environment, the behavior itself, and personal or cognitive factors that the person brings into the situation from their earlier experiences
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reciprocal determinism
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each factor affects the other 2 in a reciprocal or give and take relationship; works with bandura’s 3 factors
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self efficiency
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a person’s expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a gaol will be in a particular circumstance
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NOT
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self efficiency and self-esteem are or are not the same?
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high self efficiency
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more persistent and expect to succeed
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low self efficiency
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expect to fail and tend to avoid challenges
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Rotter’s Social Learning Theory
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a theory based on a basic principle of motivation derived from Thorndike’s Law of Effect: people are motivated to seek reinforcement and avoid punishment
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stable; pattern
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Rotter viewed personality as a relatively _______ set of potential responses to various situations. e.g. if in the past, responding a certain way led to reinforcing or pleasurable consequences, that way of responding would become a ________ of responding, or part of the “personality as learning theorists see it”
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locus of control
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Rotter; the tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not have control over events and consequences in their lives
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internal locus of control
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people who assume that their own actions and decisions directly affect the consequences they experience have this
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external locus of control
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people who assume that their lives are more controlled by powerful others, luck, or fate
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depression and learned helplessness
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people with external locus of control can fall into these
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Rotter
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Like Bandura, _______ also believed that an interaction of factors would determine the behavioral patterns that become personality for an individual
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expectancy and reinforcement value
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2 influencing factors on a person’s decision to act in a certain way given a particular situation; ROTTER
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expectancy
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refers to the person’s subjective feeling that a particular behavior will lead to a reinforcing consequence;
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IS
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Rotter’s expectancy is or isn’t similar to Bandura’s self efficiency
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reinforcement value
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refers to an individual’s preference for a particular reinforcer over all possible reinforcing consequences
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higher
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things or circumstances that are particularly appealing to us have _______ reinforcement value than other possible reinforcers
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limits
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behaviorism as an explanation has its ________
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doesn’t; social
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behaviorism ________ take mental processes into account when explaining behavior nor does it give weight to _______ influences on behavior.
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social cognitive view
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unlike psychoanalysis, the concepts in this theory can and have been scientifically tested; includes social and mental processes and their influences on behavior
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too;enabled
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some critics argue that human personality and behavior are ____ complex to explain as a result of cognitions and external stimuli interacting; others point out that this viewpoint has ___________ development of effective learning theory therapies that change behavior.
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humanistic perspective
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focus on things that make people uniquely human,, such as subjective emotions and freedom to close one’s own destiny;
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humanistic
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referred to as 3rd force of psych; based on maslow and rogers
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Self-actualizing tendency
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human beings are always striving to fulfill their innate capacities and capabilities, and to become everything that their genetic potential will allow them to become; maslow and rogers
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self concept
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important tool in self-actualization that is the development of an image of oneself; based on what people are told by others and how the sense of self is reflected in the words and actions of important people in ones life.
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real self
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one’s actual perception of characteristics, traits, and other abilities that form the basis of the striving for self-actualization
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ideal self
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the perception of what one should be or would like to be; primarily comes from significant others in ones life-especially parents during adolescence
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more
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It is _______ likely for one’s real self and ideal self to match if they are realistic
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competent and capable
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people who have close real-self to ideal-self are ______ and _________
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anxious and neurotic
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people who have mismatch of real self to ideal self are
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positive regard
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Rogers; warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant others;
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vital
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according to Rogers, having positive regard is _______ to people’s ability to cope with stress and to strive to achieve self-acualization
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unconditional positive regard
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love, affection, respect with no strings attached is necessary fro people to be able to explore fully all that they can achieve and become
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conditional positive regard
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love, affection, respect and warmth that depend, or seem to depend, on doing what those people want; e.g parents brought daughter up with expectations that she would be a doctor, so daughter does it in order to be “loved”
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fully functioning person
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a person who is in the process of self-actuallizing, actively exploring potentials and abilities and experiencing a match between the real self and ideal self
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fully functioning person
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needs unconditional positive regard
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Maslow
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self-actualization is a goal that people are always striving to reach; creative, autonomous, and unprejudiced = self actual
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Rogers
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only a person who is fully functioning is capable of reaching the goal of self-actualization; true feelings and innermost needs, do not follow crowd
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humanist
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some critics argue that the _______ view ignores the more negative aspects of human nature; e.g can this view explain motivation behind terrorism?
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scientifically
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the humanist view is very difficult to test __________
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greatest impact of humanistic view
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development of therapies designed to promote self-growth and help people better understand themselves and others
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positive psychology
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Maslow; need for focus on human potential rather than problems; now strive to understand how human beings prosper during difficult times and focuses on science of subjective, individual, and group factors that foster positive experiences.
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internal locus of control example
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nina appreciates compliments but really values constructive criticism as she can address the problems
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trait theories
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less concerned with explanation for personality development and changing personality than they are with describing personality and predicting behavior based on that description
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trait
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a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving, and trait theories attempt to describe personality in terms of a person’s traits.
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Allport
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early attempt to list and describe the traits that make up personality; scanned dictionary for words that could be traits, found about 18,000 traits then paring down to 200 traits after eliminating synonyms
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Allport
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believed that traits were literally wired into the nervous system (w/out science evidence) to guide one’s behavior across many different situations and that each person’s constellation of traits was unique
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Catell
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16PF; defined traits into two types: surface and source; 16 source traits with a possible 7 more
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surface traits
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representing the personality characteristics easily seen by other people, like those found with Allport e.g. shyness, being quiet, and disliking crowds
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source traits
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more basic traits that underlie the surface traits; e.g. introversion
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factor analysis
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Cattell; statistical technique that looks for groupings and commonalities in numerical data
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16PF
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Cattell; based on 16 source traits seen on a continuum with two opposite traits at each end
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five-factor model
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also called Big Five; 5 dimensions that represent the core description of human personality- the only dimension necessary to understand what makes us tick.
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openness
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persons willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences; big 5
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conscientiousness
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refers to person’s organization and motivation – careful in belongings and being places on time; big 5
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extraversion
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jung; extroverts vs. introverts; big 5
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agreeableness
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refers to the basic emotional style of a person who may be easygoing, friendly, and pleasant; big 5
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neuroticism
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emotional instability or stability; excessive worrying, over anxious, and moody; big 5
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big 5
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extraversion, aggreeableness, neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness
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situation interaction
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Mischel; the particular circumstances of any given situation are assumed to influence the way in which a trait is expressed
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situation interaction example
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a outgoing extravert will act different at a party versus a funeral
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all cultures
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there is evidence that the big 5 carries over to _____ _________
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more; less
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trait theories are _____ concerned with predicting personality, and ______ concerned with describing personality
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behavioral genetics
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devoted to the study of just how much of an individual’s personality is due to inherited traits
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Minnesota twin study
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reveals that identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins or unrelated people in intelligence, leadership qualities, the tendency to follow rules and uphold traditional cultural expectations; holds true even if twins are raised in separate environments
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adoption studies
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confirm what twin studies have shown – genetic influences account for a great deal of personality development
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heritability
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how much some trait within a population can be attributed to genetic influences and the extent individual genetic variation impact differences in observed behavior
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Big 5
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has 50 percent heritability other 50 percent is environment
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inherited traits
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25 to 50 percent
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individualistic culture
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tend to have loose ties between individuals with people tending to look after themselves and their immediate families only; USA and Great Britain
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collectivistic culture
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from birth, deeply tied into very very strong in groups, typically extended families
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power distance
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the degree to which the less powerful members of a culture accept and even expect that the power within the culture is held in the hands of a select few rather than being more evenly distributed
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masculinity/femininity
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referring to how a culture distributes the roles played by men and women in this culture, this dimension varies more with men than women
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uncertainty avoidance
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some cultures are more tolerant of uncertainty and unstructured situations
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eclectic view
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way of choosing the parts of different theories that seem to best fit a particular situation, rather than using only 1 theory to explain a phenomenon
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most
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______ psychological professionals use the eclectic view
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interviews
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psychoanalysts, humanistic therapies
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projective tests
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psychoanalysts
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personality inventories
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trait theorists
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interview
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for psychological purposes this is more likely to be unstructured and flow naturally from the beginning dialogue between the client and the psychologist
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halo effect
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problem with interview; tendency to form a favorable or unfavorable impression of someone at the first meeting, so that all of a person’s comments and behavior after that first impression of someone will be interpreted to agree with the impression
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projective tests
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show clients ambiguous stimuli in hoping that the client will project unconscious stimuli and ask the clients to tell them what they see. used to explore a client’s personality or used as a diagnostic tool to uncover problems in personality
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Rorschach Inkblot test
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projective test develped in 1921 by Hermann rorschach; 10 inkblot: 5 color and 5 black ink;controversial in scoring
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Thematic Apperception Test
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consists of 20 pictures, all black and white, that are shown to a client and the client is asked to tell a story about these
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subjective
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projective tests are very ______ (valid only within the person’s own perception); and other problems are validity and reliability
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direct observation
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psychologist observes the client engaging in ordinary, everyday behavior, preferably in the natural setting of a home, school, or workplace
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rating scale
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numerical rating is assigned either by the assessor or client, for specific behaviors
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frequency count
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the assessor literally counts the frequency of certain behaviors within a specified time limit
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ADHD and social-skills
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use rating scales and frequency counts to measure:
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problems with rating scales and frequency counts
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observer effect and observer bias
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personality inventory
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a questionnaire that has a standard list of questions and only requires certain specific answers;
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more
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personality inventory is ______ objective and reliable than projective tests
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myers-briggs
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An attempt to sort people according to Carl Jung’s 4 personality types; it has 126 questions. Most people agree with their assigned type, as each trait has strengths. However, though it is widely used for job assessment, it probably is not well-suited for that purpose.
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Jung 4 personality types
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sensation/intuition, thinking/feeling, introversion/extraversion, perceiving/judging
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MMPI
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most common personality inventory; tests for abnormal behavior and thinking patterns in personality
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validity scales
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are built into an well-designed psychological inventory and are intended to indicate whether or not a person taking the inventory is responding honestly
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problems with validity scales
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subject to culturural differences in interpretations of questions; some may grow tired and pick answers at random
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observable behaviors
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frequency counts and rating scales are especially helpful in assessing
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MMPI-2
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personality assessment might be best suited for objectively identifying abnormal patterns of behavior or thinking
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phrenology
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A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain.
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ego
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executive director

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