Psychology Ch 1 – Flashcards with Answers

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Psychology
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scientific study of behavior and mental processes
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theory
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a conception of apparent relationships among observed events
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pure research
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research for its own sake
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applied research
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research to solve specific problems
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personality
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the study of human traits and characteristics is of interest to ______ psychologists
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wilhelm wundt
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the very first psychological lab was established by:
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structuralism
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Wilhelm Wundt founded the school of psychology called:
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William James
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Functionalism was established by
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functionalism
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the school of psychology that emphasizes the purpose of mind and behavior and views consciousness as a continuous not discrete process is called:
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John B Watson
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argued for a psychology based on the study of measurable behavior
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measurable
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John B Watson argued for a psychology based on the study of ____ behavior
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behaviorism
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B.F. Skinner made major contributions to:
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B.F. Skinner
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who made major contributions to behaviorism
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Evolution
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Charles Darwin theory of ____ predicted that organisms that survived and reproduced were better adapted to the environment
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environment
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Charles Darwin theory of evolution predicted that organisms that survived and reproduced were better adapted to ______
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psychoanalysis
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Freud’s technique of psychotherapy is called:
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psychodynamic
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At the center of ______ theory of human motivation is the unconscious
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unconscious
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at the center of psychodynamic theory of human motivation is the ____
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cognitive
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____ psychologists are specifically interested in studying human thinking and memory
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thinking and memory
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cognitive psychologists are specifically interested in studying human ____ and _______
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humanistic-existential
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the _______ perspective unites self-fulfillment and free choice as central principles to its approach
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self-fulfillment and free choice
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the humanistic-existential unites _____ and _____ as central principles to its approach
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neoanalysts
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in comparison with traditional psychoanalysis, ____ place less emphasis on unconscious processes
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sociocultural
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the _____ perspective is concerned with the issues of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status
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gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status
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the sociocultural perspective is concerned with the issues of _____, ______, and _________
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Margaret Flow Washburn
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The first woman to receive a PhD in psychology and the author of The Animal Mind was
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critical thinking
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A form of reasoning characterized by skepticism and thoughtful analysis of statements are arguments
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scientific method
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the __________ allows us to test ideas and refine knowledge
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hypothesis
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specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is tested through research
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target
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in selecting research participants, the result can be generalized if the sample represents the ____ population
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women and minority groups
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research samples often under represent _____ and _____
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naturalistic
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in ______ observations, researchers study behavior where it actually happens, or \”in the field\”
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correlation coefficient
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a ________ is a number that expresses the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables
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experiment
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the preferred method for asking questions about cause and effect relationships is an _____
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independent
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in an experiment, the presence of a(n) _____ variable is manipulated by the researchers so that its effects may be determined
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dependent
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the measured outcomes or results in an experiment are called ______ variables
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subjects
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_____ in experimental groups receive the treatment in an experimental design
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control group
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participants who go through an experiment but who do not receive any treatment or manipulation are called the ____
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double-blind
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in a _____ study, neither the experimenter nor the participants know who has obtained the real treatment
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double-blind
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the FDA requires _____ studies before it will allow the marketing and sale of a new drug
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ethical
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______ standards in research allow us to balance interest in acquiring new information with concern about dignity and human welfare
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dignity and human welfare
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ethical standards in research allow us to balance interest in acquiring new information with concern about ____ and ____
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animals
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when research cannot be carried out with human subjects, researchers often use _____

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