Psychology 281 Chapter 12

Social Psychology
The scientific study of how a person’s thoughts, feelings and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined or implied presence of others.

Conformity
Behavior that is influenced by what other are DOING. Cultures with high levels of individualism have lower rates of this. Women tend to conform more then men when a public response is required.

Compliance
Behavior that is a result of a direct request.

Obedience
Changing one’s behavior at the command of an authority figure.

Asch’s Study on Coonformity
In ___________, if 4 or more people were doing a behavior than the likelihood increased that the one’s after would follow.

Groupthink
A kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned.

Group Polarization
When groups will take more extreme positions than individuals.

Social Facilitation
Others watching increases our behavior.

Social Impairment
Others watching decreases our behavior.

Social Loafing
Tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others.. Making an individual responsible can decrease this.

Both Social Facilitation and Social Impairment
The key factor is arousal in ______________.

Foot-in-the-Door Compliance
Small request that turns to a larger.

Door-in-the-Face Compliance
Large request we usually refuse and agree to a lesser request.

Lowball Compliance
Once a commitment then cost increases.

Milgram’s Research
1st set of experiments 65% went to 450 volts. People will easily obey an authority figure and do harm to other. Participants identified with the experimenter and larger scientific process rather that to the ordinary community. No one single personality trait has been found to be associated with high levels of obedience.

Affective Component
The way a person feels.

Behavior Component
The actions a person takes.

Cognitive Component
How the person thinks.

Attitudes
A response, either positive or negative, toward a certain person, idea, or situation and they are learned.

Persuasion
A process of social influence to cause other people to change their attitudes and behavior.

Source
If the communicator is viewed as an expert, seems trustworthy, attractive, or similar to the person receiving the message increased persuasion. Greater expertise leads to greater persuasion.

Message
This should be clear and well organized as well as present both sides if audience is uncommented.

Target Audience
Know your audience.

Central-Route Processing
Facts and content of the message.

Peripheral-Route Processing
Feelings.

Cognitive Dissonance
A sense of tension that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to his or her attitude.

Ways to Reduce Cognitive Dissonance
Change behavior to match the attitude. Change the thought to justify the behavior. Developing new thoughts to justify the behavior.

Festinger and Carlsmith Experiment
Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said that the task was more interesting that did those who got $20 for the task.

Stereotype
A set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a group.

Attribution
Explanations that account for one’s behaviors and or the behaviors of others.

Fundamental Attribution Error
We are more likely to attribute another’s behavior to internal rather than to situational causes and our own behavior to situational causes.

Situational Attribution
Caused by a situation.

Dispositional Cause
Internal personality characteristics are seen as the cause.

Prejudice
Attitude.

Discrimination
Behavior

In-group
The group one identifies with.

Out-group
The group competitors, enemies, others.

Scapegoating
The process of making people in an out-group responsible for the problems. Usually the group of people with the least power.

Social Identity Theory
Individuals view their own group favorably so as to think of themselves more favorably. Part of a person’s self-concept is based on identification with nation, culture, ethnic group, gender or other roles in society.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
The tendency of ones’ expectations to affect one’s behavior in such a way as to make the expectations more likely to occur.

Realistic Conflict Theory
Increasing prejudice and discrimination are closely tied to an increasing degree of conflict between the in-group when those groups are seeking a common resource, such as land, or available jobs.

Proximity
(work or live close) positively correlated.

Similarity
People tend to like being around others who are similar to them.

Opposites Attract
Complementary characteristics.

Reciprocity of Liking
If someones likes me, I like them.

Amygdale and Limbic System
. Parts of the brain relate to Aggression

Testosterone
Hormone relate to Agression

Alcohol
This acts to release inhibitions.

Social Role
A type of behavior expected from certain individuals.

Violent video games
________ correlate with increased aggression levels of the children who play them, but a correlation does NOT PROVE causation they have not proven that these cause increased aggression.

Zimbardo’s Prison Study
Male college students agreed to participate in a two-week experiment to discover what would happen when they took on the roles of prisoners and guards. The guards became more aggressive. The experiment was cancelled after 5 days because it was getting out of control. Abu Gharib prison guards showed similar behavior.

“Kitty” Genovese Case
Victim of a brutal assault 38 people observed and 0 called 911.

Bystander Effect
When there are other potential helpers people are less inclined to help.

Diffusion Responsibility
The more people, the less responsibility each individual feels.

Good Mood
People are more inclined to help if the are in a _________.

Fewer
The ________ people observing, the more help one receives.

Altruism
Helping someone in trouble with no expectation of reward and often without fear for one’s own safety.