Psychological Therapies Chapter 14

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Action Therapy
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therapy in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly
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Authenticity
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the genuine, open, and honest, response of the therapist to the client
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Aversion therapy
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form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior
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Arbitrary Interference
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distortion of thinking in which a person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence
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Antipsychotic Drugs
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drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior
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Antidepressant Drugs
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drugs used to treat depression and anxiety
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Antianxiety Drugs
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drugs used to treat and calm anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers
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Behavior Therapies
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action therapies based on the principle of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior
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Bilateral Anterior Cingulotomy
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psychosurgical technique in which an electrode wire is inserted into the anterior cingulate gyrus, with the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging, to destroy a very small portion of that brain area with electric current
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Biomedical therapies
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therapies that directly affect the biological functioning of the body and brain; therapies for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with medical or biological methods to relieve symptoms
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Behavior modification
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use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior
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Contingency contract
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a formal, written agreement between the therapist and the client in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated
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Cognitive therapy
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therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replacing distorted, unrealistic beliefs, with more realistic, helpful thoughts
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Cognitivebehavioral Therapy (CBT)
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action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by having them think more rationally and logically, which in turn will impact behavior
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Cybertherapy
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psychotherapy that is offered on the internet
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Directive
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therapy in which the therapist actively gives interpretations of a client’s statements and may suggest certain behaviors or actions
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Eclectic
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approach to therapy that results from combining elements of several different approaches or techniques
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Empathy
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ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client
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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
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form of biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a person’s head, and an electric current is passed through the electrodes that is strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion
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Exposure Therapies
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behavioral techniques that expose individuals to anxiety or fear-related stimuli, under carefully controlled conditions, to promote new learning
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Evidence-based Treatment
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also called empirically supported treatment, refers to inventions, strategies, or techniques, that have been found to produce therapeutic and desired changes during controlled research studies
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Free Association
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psychoanalytic technique in which a patient is encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evalutations
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Flooding
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technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response
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Family Counseling (Family Therapy)
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a form of group therapy in which family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family
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Group Therapy
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form of therapy or treatment during which a small group of clients with similar concerns meet together with a therapist to address their issues
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Gestalt Therapy
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form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing
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Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)
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form of therapy for depression which incorporates multiple approaches and focuses on interpersonal problems
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Insight Therapies
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therapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings
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Latent Content
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the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams
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Magnification and minimization
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distortions of thinking in which a person blows a negative event out of proportion to its importance while ignoring relevant positive events
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magnification
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the tendency to interpret situations as far more dangerous, harmful, or important than they actually are
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Modeling
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learning through observation and imitation of others
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Manifest Content
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the actual dream and its events
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Nondirective
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therapy style in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead remaining a calm, nonjudgemental listener while the client talks
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Overgeneralization
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distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original
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Psychosurgery
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surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders
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psychopharmacology
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the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders
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Prefrontal lobotomy
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psychosurgery in which the connections of the prefrontal cortex to the other areas of the brain are severed
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Personalization
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distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsibility for events that are unconnected to the person
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Participant Modeling
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technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model
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person-centered therapy
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a nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens
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Psychodynamic Therapy
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a newer and more general term for therapies based in psychoanalysis with an emphasis on transeference, shorter treatment times, and a more direct therapeutic approach
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Psychoanalysis
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an insight therapy based on the therapy of freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts; Freud’s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it
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Psychotherapy
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therapy for mental disorders in which the person with a problem talks with a psychological professional
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Resistance
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occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, by either changing the subject or becoming silent
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Reflection
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therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the client is saying rather than interpreting the statements
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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
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cognitive behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements
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Self-Help Groups (support groups)
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a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social or emotional support
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Selective Thinking
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distortion of thinking in which a person focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects
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Systematic Desensitization
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behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears
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Token economy
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the use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges
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Time-out
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an extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement because for undesirable behavior, usually by being placed in a quiet corner or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunities
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Transference
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in psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist
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Therapy
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treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively
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Therapeutic Alliance
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the relationship between therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect, and understanding
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Tardive dyskinesa
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side effect of antipsychotic drugs that produces muscle tremors and stiffness
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Unconditional Positive regard
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positive regard that is given without any conditions or strings attached

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