Psychology 2 Test Answers

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Hypnosis involves a state of
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Heightnened openness to suggestion
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Research on susceptibility to hypnosis indicates that
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people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to become absorbed in the imaginary events of a novel or a movie.
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behaved in the same fashion as unhypnotized individuals.
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In one study both hypnotized and unhypnotized subjects were told to throw acid in a researcher’s face. In this experiment, hypnotized people
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posthyponic suggestion
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Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua’s therapist was attempting to make use of
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report little pain from placing their arms in an ice bath.
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People can be hypnotically induced to
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social influence
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The claim (Lynn et al 1990) that hypnotic phenomena are regulated by normal conscious processes is associated with the theory that hypnosis reflects the power of
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Orne and Evans(1965) discovered that unhypnotized subjects performed the same dangerous acts as hypnotized subjects. This finding is most consistent with the theory that hypnosis involves
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Conscious role-playing
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Ernest Hilgard (1986) believed hypnosis involves social influence and a split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simultaneously with and yet separately from other thoughts is called
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dissociation
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Hilgard’s divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that
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hypnotized people can endure pain(ice bath) without experiencing emotional distress.
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One plausible theory suggests that hypnosis relieves pain by
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distracting attention
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biopsychosocial
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Understanding hypnosis in terms of focused attention distinctive brain activity, and the presence of an authoritative presence in a legitimate context, requires an integrated ________ approach.
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Hypnotic pain relief may also result from another form of dual processing called ________ _________
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selective attention
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Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.
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psychoactive
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The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of
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tollerance
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The change in brain chemistry that offsets the effects of a psychoactive drug is called
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neuroadaptation.
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withdrawl
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When Celeste was unable to obtain her regular supply of heroin she began to develop pain and an intense craving for the drug. Celeste was experiencing symptoms of
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Physical pain and intense cravings indicate
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physical dependence
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psychological dependence
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Although Max never experiences caffeine withdrawal symptoms he feels that he emotionally needs coffee every morning as part of his daily routine. Max best illustrates
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Compulsive craving for and use of a drug is an indication of
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addiction
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Researchers are most likely to question the value of hypnosis for
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enhancing memory
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Consciousness
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our awareness of ourselves and our environment
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which specific area would be most interested in identfying the cortical activation patterns associated with a person’s perception of different objects
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cognitive neuroscience
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Dual processing
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Simultaneously processing on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
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Compared with unsconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively
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slow and especially effective for solving new problems
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Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the nessicity of
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selective attention
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The cocktail party effect or unsafe road crossing provides an example of
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selective attention
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In one experiment most of the participants that viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella toting woman sauntering across the screen illustrates
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in-attentional blindness
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man giving directions to a younger man and a construction worker interrupts by passing between with door, and the man giving the directions didn’t notice a switch in younger man illustrates
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change blindness
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Circadian rhythm
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a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle
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Circadian rhythm
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influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the suprachiasmatic
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Jordanna has decided to go to bed early, although her eyes are closed and she is very relaxed she has not fallen asleep
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An electroencephalograph is most likely to indicate the presence of alpha waves
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Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with what stage of sleep
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Stage 1
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Sleep spindles
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rythmic burst of brain activity that occur during stage 2 sleep
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Bed wetting is most likely to occur at what stage of sleep
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slow wave
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At 1:00 AM Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk an EEG of his brain is most likely to indicate the presence of
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Delta waves
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You spend about half of your night in what stage of sleep
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Stage 2
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At 3 in the morning John has already slept for 4 hours, if sleep continues we can expect an increase occurrence of
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REM Sleep
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Brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar with what stage of sleep
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Stage 1
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REM sleep is also called paradoxical sleep because
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our nervous system is highly active while our voluntary muscles hardly move
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40 year old Lance insist that he never dreams, research suggest that he probably
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would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep
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The human sleep cycle repeats itself every
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90 minutes
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Research on sleep patterns indicates that
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sleep patterns may be genetically influenced
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chronic sleep deprivation is likely to
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promote obesity and impair memory
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sleep deprivation_____the production of body fat by____levels of the stress hormone cortisol
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stimulates; increasing
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From ages 3 to 6, the brain’s neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the
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frontal lobes.
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When Tommy’s mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget’s ________ stage
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sensorimotor
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After 4-month-olds habituated to an image of a cube, they stared longer when shown
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an impossible rather than a possible version of the cube.
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When researcher Karen Wynn showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible outcome, the infants
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stared longer at the outcome.
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If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to
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recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape.
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Mrs. Pearson cut Judy’s hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia’s into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn’t getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn’t understand the principle of
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conservation
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According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
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the difficulty perceiving things from another person’s point of view.
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Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friend’s false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a
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theory of mind.
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An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with
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autism
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One variation in the autism spectrum is characterized by normal intelligence, often accompanied by exceptional skill in a particular area, but deficient social and communication skills. This disorder is called
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Asperger syndrome
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Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen has proposed that autism is indicative of an inborn
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male systemizing tendency.
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When people with autism watch another person’s hand movements, they display less ________ than most others
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mirror neuron activity
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The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children’s ability to solve problems is enhanced by
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interaction with the social environment
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According to Piaget, a person first comprehends that division is the reverse of multiplication during the ________ stage
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concrete operational
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At about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates
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stranger anxiety.
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Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can’t assimilate unfamiliar faces into their
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schemas
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The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called
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attachment.
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Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with
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body contact.
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Which of the following is an example of imprinting?
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A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball.
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Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is fostered by
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mere exposure.
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At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ________ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are ________ to their own
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fear; similar
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Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us, in an aspect of our
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environment.
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The impact of our cultural backgrounds on the development of our personal values best illustrates the influence of
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the environment.
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The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as
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behavior genetics.
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A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying hereditary influences on
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personality traits.
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DNA is a complex
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molecule.
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The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called
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genes.
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Depending on environmental conditions, specific genes can be either
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active or inactive.
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The genome is the complete
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set of genetic material in an organism’s chromosomes.
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Twin studies suggest that Alzheimer’s disease is influenced by
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heredity.
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Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are ________ similar in neuroticism and ________ similar in risk of divorcing
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less; less
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Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in
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all of these: extraversion, neuroticism, temperament
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Environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing
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identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart.
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Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, one should be cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors because
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any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities.
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The personalities of adopted children
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are not very similar to the personalities of their adoptive parents.
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Research most clearly suggests that personality traits are more strongly influenced by
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genes than by home environment.
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The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children’s ________ than on their ________.-
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religious beliefs; personality traits
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The labels \”easy,\” \”difficult,\” and \”slow-to-warm-up\” are used to refer to differences in an infant’s
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temperament
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Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be
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irritable and unpredictable.
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A child’s temperament is likely to be
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stable over time.
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Heritability refers to the extent to which
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trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.
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An African butterfly that is green in the summer turns brown in the fall thanks to a temperature-controlled genetic switch. This best illustrates that genes are
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self-regulating.
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People have always responded so positively to Alyssa’s good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates
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the interaction of nature and nurture.
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Assessing possible links between specific chromosome segments and alcohol dependence would be of greatest interest to a(n)
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molecular geneticist.
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Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of
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selective mating.
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Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life cycle
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social
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One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology centers around the issue of
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continuity or stages.
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A teratogen is a(n)
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substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.
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If research suggested that a pregnant mother’s use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a(n)
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teratogen.
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Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby will most likely be
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underweight.
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The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include
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brain abnormalities.
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Habituation refers to the
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decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.
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Infant novelty preferences have been discovered by assessing infants’
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habituation.
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Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in a
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facelike image.
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Maturation refers to
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biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.
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Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones
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the age-related timing but not the sequence
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The relative lack of neural interconnections in the association areas of the brain at the time of birth is most likely to contribute to
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infantile amnesia.
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Cognition refers to -According to Piaget, schemas are
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people’s conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences.
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Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called
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assimilation.
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The first time that 4-year-old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was simply a large whistle. Sarah’s initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of
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assimilation.
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Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
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sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
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Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget’s ________ stage
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sensorimotor
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During which of Piaget’s stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?
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sensorimotor
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When researcher Karen Wynn showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible outcome, the infants
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stared longer at the outcome.

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