Psych101: Chapter 6 Consciousness and Cognition

Nightmares are more common in children than in adults because _____. children spend more of their sleep in the REM state
In the brain, creating a mental image is _______ seeing an actual image. almost the opposite of
Mariam takes 20 minutes daily to sit by herself and meditate. A fully meditative state is a form of altered consciousness.
A more creative method of problem-solving is the use of divergent thinking.
Vygotsky believed that language could help a child learn to learn control social behavior.
The debate over whether animals use real language centers around the fact that none of the animals have achieved language development comparable to a 3-year-old human.
If an instructor was referring to a stream during a lecture, a student’s mental image is likely to be a picture-like image.
Heuristics could also be called “rules of thumb.”
When the solution to a problem suddenly comes to mind, it is called insight.
One barrier to innovative problem solving is persisting in using techniques that have been successful in the past, also known as mental set.
Which of the following parts of the body controls the sleep-wake cycle? hypothalamus.
A mechanical problem-solving technique is also referred to as trial and error.
A person with sleep apnea stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more.
Kanzi, the chimpanzee, communicates with researchers by using abstract symbols on a keyboard and making some sounds.
________ is the ability to adapt and deal with new problems or challenges the first time you encounter them. Fluid intelligence
Natural cycles of activity that bodies must go through are called biological rhythms.
Piaget theorized that _____ preceded and aided the development of ______. concepts; language
The rhythm and emphasis of communicating is part of which language structure? pragmatics
Delta waves begin to appear in which stage of sleep? non-REM Stage 3
The cognitive universalism theory states that concepts are universal and influence the development of language.
Niles has begun to fall asleep suddenly during the day, sometimes in inappropriate places. Niles is most likely suffering from narcolepsy.
Which of the following images is the most subordinate concept? magnolias
On Sara’s walk to campus one morning, she was thinking about what a nice day it was, how many people were already on campus, and how she had to stop by the bookstore on her way to class. Sara was experiencing waking consciousness.
Theodora suffers from an inability to get to sleep, and then to stay asleep. Which of the following would help Theodora with her insomnia? going to bed and getting up on a regular schedule
Derek was lying on the couch and had fallen asleep when all of a sudden his body jerked and he woke up because he felt like he was falling. Derek was most likely in which stage of sleep? non-REM Stage 1
_______ can help us interpret or deal with new information or events that we have never encountered Concepts
A hypnic jerk is likely to occur during non-REM Stage 1 sleep.
A mental image that is larger and covers more distance takes longer to view than one that is smaller and more compact.
Examples of algorithms are mathematical formulas.
Language allows people to ______ and _______. communicate with one another; represent their own mental activity
A prototype is an example of a concept.
Functional fixedness is a barrier to successful problem solving.
Recent studies support Rosch-Heider’s theory of______, rather than the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. a cognitive universalism
The system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences is syntax.
Many researchers believe that at least some animals experience a kind of consciousness.
According to Csikszentmihalyi, people who are creative are mostly pretty normal.
A sudden loss of muscle tone is called cataplexy.
Abby’s new puppy cries each night when left in her crate. When Abby picks up the puppy and holds her to her chest the puppy stops crying and falls asleep. However, after she puts the puppy back in the crate the crying begins again. After a few nights, Abby suddenly realizes that her heartbeat is helping the dog fall asleep. She places a ticking clock next to the crate and the puppy goes right to sleep at night. Abby’s realization is an example of insight.
Even after her girlfriends reported seeing her boyfriend Jeff out at clubs with other women, Jackie continues to believe her boyfriend and his friends who say the women are just old neighborhood friends. This is an example of confirmation bias.
When a person, while solving a problem, is hesitant or unable to think beyond solutions that have worked in the past, he or she is stuck in a mental set.
The idea that people deprived of REM sleep will become paranoid and seem to be mentally ill is now known as REM myth.
Insomnia can be helped by going to bed only when sleepy.
____ percent of dreams take place in REM sleep. 90
A person has entered Stage 4 sleep when delta waves account for more than ___ percent of the brain wave pattern. 50
Which is NOT an example of a biological rhythm? the need for daily exercise
Nearly ____ percent of an infant’s sleep is REM, compared to about ____ percent for a normal, healthy adult 50; 20
If people are awakened during _____ sleep, they will probably not believe that they were actually asleep. non-REM Stage 1
In the early stages of sleep, _______ waves appear. theta
According to philosopher Daniel Dennett, consciousness is made up of multiple “channels” that people must organize and that are influenced by social groups and culture.
Which statement about prototypes is TRUE? A person’s knowledge about a type of object affects the person’s prototype for the category.
Mechanical solutions may involve solving by rote.
The term that refers to the mental activity that takes place in the brain when a person is processing information, and includes things such as problem solving, communication, and organization of material, is cognition.
An educated guess based on prior experience is a(n) heuristic
In waking up and getting ready for class in the morning, one might follow a(n) script.
Most divergent thinking happens during some automatic activity, like walking.
A circle is an example of a formal concept.
Vygotsky believed that _____ was a way for children to plan their behavior, develop self-control, and organize actions so that their goals could be obtained. private speech
The theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language is the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
In some languages, changing the ______ of a spoken word can change its entire meaning. intonation
A recent study has shown that for a group of individuals with ______, computerized cognitive exercises that placed increasing demands on auditory perception were beneficial. schizophrenia
Daydreaming and being hypnotized are both examples of altered states of consciousness.
Michael painted the picture and The picture was painted by Michael have the same semantic meaning but different syntax.
Grammar includes the rules of syntax, morphology, phonemes, and pragmatics.
In a well known animal language research study, Kanzi the chimp demonstrated four consistent sounds to represent banana, grapes, juice, and the word yes.
Writing a term paper may be best approached by using subgoals.
A heuristic in which the differences between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference is known as the means-end analysis.
People who believe that aliens have come to earth may disregard evidence that crop circles are human-made. This is an example of confirmation bias.
Attempting to understand, organize, and communicate information to others is all part of cognition.
Natasha saw a picture of her “dream” dorm room in a catalog. With the goal of making her dorm room look like the one in the catalog, she made a list of things she’d have to buy. This is an example of a means-end analysis
In order for people to be able to tell you how many televisions they have in their house, they would probably use a mental image.
Research has shown brain activity in the ______ during tasks involving visual perception. parietal lobes
The ________ involves estimating the likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory. availability heuristic
Csikszentmihalyi found that creative people are not necessarily unconventional in all aspects of their lives.
Which of the following is TRUE about sleepwalking? It is at least partially due to heredity.
The heart rate slows, breathing becomes more shallow and irregular, and an EEG would show the first signs of sleep spindles in non-REM Stage 2 sleep.
As ______ accumulates in the body, a person will begin to feel sleepy. melatonin
The body is at its lowest level of functioning during non-REM Stage 4.
Nearly ____ percent of an infant’s sleep is REM, compared to about ____ percent for a normal, healthy adult. 50; 20
If a person experiences increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights, it is called REM rebound.
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