Psych101: Chapter 5: Development Across Life Span

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think abstractly
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Lizzie, age 12, regularly asks questions such as, \”What if everyone just got along?\” and, \”If I became a medical researcher, could I find a cure for cancer?\” According to Piaget’s theory, these questions suggest that Lizzie has acquired the ability to _____.
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Genes and experience can affect each other.
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Which of the following describes the relationship between heredity and environmental factors in determining development?
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Some reflexes help infants to survive until they are capable of learning more complex means of interaction.
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Which of the following is true about reflexes?
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develop values in life and beliefs concerning things such as political issues and career options.
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The primary task of individuals facing Erikson’s stage of identity versus role confusion is to
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a life review.
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Erikson believes that during late adulthood, people engage in a process called
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46
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Humans have a total of ____ chromosomes in each cell of their bodies.
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object permanence.
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By the end of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, infants have fully developed a sense of
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stress and information overload.
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Declines in memory during middle age are most likely due to
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becomes vulnerable to diseases the mother may have.
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During the embryonic period, the embryo
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age thirteen and the early twenties.
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Adolescence refers to the period between
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are more likely to occur in women taking fertility drugs.
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Dizygotic twins
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Caffeine
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________ may cause miscarriage and low birth weight for the developing embryo.
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rooting
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When you touch an infant’s cheek, he will turn toward your hand, open his mouth, and search for the nipple. This is known as the ________ reflex.
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longitudinal
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A research design in which one participant or group of participants is followed and studied over a long period of time is called a ________ design.
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a chromosome disorder.
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Down syndrome is
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conjoined twins.
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When the mass of cells does not completely split apart, the result is
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zygote.
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The cell resulting from fertilization is called a(n)
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dominant gene
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A ______ will always be expressed in the observable trait.
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finding a mate.
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During the intimacy versus isolation stage, Erikson saw the primary task to be
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cross-sequential
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Dr. Austin is studying the effects of aging on memory. She gives an initial test of memory to a group of 20-year-olds and a group of 40-year-olds. Then she follows both groups of participants for a period of five years, regularly giving them memory tests during that time. Which research design is Dr. Austin using?
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the personal fable.
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Sixteen-year-old Esmerelda often drinks several glasses of beer and then drives herself home. When her parents express worry that her drinking and driving will lead to an accident, Esmerelda responds, \”That won’t happen to me. It only happens to other people.\” Esmerelda’s thinking reflects
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twenties
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Olivia is in peak physical health. Her senses are sharp, and her cognitive abilities are mature. Olivia is most likely in which of the following age groups?
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telegraphic speech.
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When Calvin’s mother left him with the babysitter, Calvin said, \”Mommy go.\” This is an example of
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the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
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In the study of human development, the term nature refers to
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Cystic fibrosis
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________ is carried by recessive genes and inherited when a child inherits two recessive genes.
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zone of proximal development
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Vygotsky’s _________ is the difference between what a child can do alone versus what a child can do with the help of a teacher.
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the lengthy amount of time involved.
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One disadvantage of the longitudinal design is
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concerned with how a person deals with life issues such as work, family, and relationships.
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Adolescence is
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conflict and rebellion
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Many researchers believe that ________ is necessary to break away from childhood dependence on parents and become self-sufficient adults.
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Rubella
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______ is a teratogen that may cause blindness.
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isolation.
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According to Erikson, young adults who have difficulty trusting others and who are unsure of their own identities may experience
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come from two fertilized eggs.
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Dizygotic twins
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dominant.
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Genes that actively control the expression of a trait are referred to as
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child-directed speech.
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The high-pitched, sing-song way in which adults talk to infants is
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free-radical
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One theory suggests that the effects of aging are produced by oxygen molecules with unstable electrons bounding around and damaging structures inside our cells. This is called ________ theory.
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Telomeres
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________ are structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces.
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usually does not decline.
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In middle age, sexual functioning
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life review
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In Erikson’s ________, people must deal with mistakes, regrets, and unfinished business.
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shorten and impair cell reproduction
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In cellular-clock theory, telomeres _________, which ultimately causes aging.
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exercise their mental abilities
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People who ________ have been found to be far less likely to develop memory problems in old age.
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insecure and resentful.
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Children raised with an authoritarian style of parenting are often
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pre-conventional
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Five-year-old Johnny stole a piece of candy from the grocery store. Since he was not punished for stealing the candy, he believes it is okay to steal again. Johnny is in which level of moral development?
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personal identity
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The search for ________ is the central theme in adolescent social and personality development.
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about 2 years after the beginning of the growth spurt.
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Puberty begins
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chromosomes.
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Genes are located on
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securely attached
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When their mothers are nearby, ________ infants are wary but calm around strangers.
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the child’s internal cognitive development.
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In his theories of development, Piaget focused on
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contact comfort is an important factor in love and attachment.
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Psychologist Harry Harlow found that
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a holophrase.
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A child who says, \”Juice!\” to mean, \”I want some juice!\” is using
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Piaget
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Vygotsky emphasized the importance of social interactions as a primary factor in cognitive development, whereas ________ stressed the importance of the child’s interactions with objects.
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avoidant
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With respect to their babies’ needs, mothers of ______ babies are unresponsive, insensitive, and coldly rejecting.
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Stem cells
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________, which may be used to grow new organs or tissues for transplant or to repair neurological damage, develop during the germinal period.
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are conjoined twins.
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Abby and Brittany Hensel
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first three months.
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The most likely time for a miscarriage is in the
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fetal
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Chrissy is in a stage of her pregnancy where she has been feeling tiny \”flutters\” in her abdomen. In addition, her physician told her that her baby is continuing to develop fat and is growing significantly in length and weight. Given this information, the current period of prenatal development is the ________ period.
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the interaction between nature and nurture.
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The view of most psychologists regarding the relationship between heredity and environmental factors in determining development is that all we are and all we become is the result of
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nurture.
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Anything that can have an influence on development that does not come from within the person is known as
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go through a time of sexual changes similar to but less dramatic than menopause.
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Men
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ego integrity versus despair.
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The developmental crisis faced by adults in the sixties and beyond is called
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menopause.
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The cessation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle is called
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no child will be afflicted with PKU, although two in four will carry the recessive gene.
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If the mother carries the recessive PKU gene, and the father does not, then
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Chromosomes
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________ are rod-shaped structures found in the nucleus of each cell.
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temperaments.
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Early in life, infants will demonstrate their personalities through their
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have clear vision to about 7 to 10 inches.
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With respect to vision, newborns
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egocentrism.
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Three-year-old Kara loves Barbie dolls, so she decides to give one to her mother for Christmas. This is
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ability to understand that altering the appearance of something does not change its nature.
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Conservation refers to the
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he Strange Situation.
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Ainsworth’s experiment to measure the attachment of an infant to the caregiver was called
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fetal
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The functioning, but not the structure, of the central nervous system is vulnerable throughout the _____ period.
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ovum.
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The egg is also called the
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generativity.
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Sylvia is a middle-aged woman who volunteers as a youth coordinator at her church and as a Girl Scout leader. She is developing what Erikson referred to as
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final development of the frontal lobes of the brain.
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The abstract thinking that occurs during Piaget’s formal operations stage becomes possible in adolescence due to
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longitudinal
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The ________ design has the advantage of looking at real age-related changes as those changes occur in the same individual.
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difficult
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Alex is irritable, loud, and active most of the time. He is negative about change of any kind and falls asleep at different times each night. Which type of temperament does Alex exhibit?
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final development of the frontal lobes of the brain.
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The abstract thinking that occurs during Piaget’s formal operations stage becomes possible in adolescence due to
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authoritative
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The _______ parenting style tends to be more democratic.
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study of determining how much of behavior is the result of genetic inheritance and how much is due to personal experience.
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Behavioral genetics is the
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parenting
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Erikson saw ________ as the primary role of middle adulthood.
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startle
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Moro reflex is another name for the _______ reflex.
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denial.
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The first stage in Kübler-Ross’s theory is
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sleep apnea
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There is some evidence that high blood pressure and ______ are linked.
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five
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Kübler-Ross theorized that people go through ________ stages of reaction when faced with death.

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