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psych quiz 6 – Flashcards with Answers

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the persistence of learning over time most clearly depends on
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memory
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when an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which measure of memory is being used?
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recall
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which measure of memory is used on a test that requires matching glossary terms with their correct definitions
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recognition
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ebbinghaus’ use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that
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the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning
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the three steps in memory information processing
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encoding, storage, retrieval
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the retention of encoded information over time refers to
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storage
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the process of getting information out of memory is called
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retrieval
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the original atkinson-schiffrin three-stage information processing model introduced distinctions among
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sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
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shelly was able to remember the names of her new classmates for only a minute or two after they had been introduced to her. the new class members’ names were briefly stored in her
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short-term memory
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according to allen badly, we consciously process incoming auditory and visual-spatial information in our ______ memory
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working
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the integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of
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working memory
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in alan baddeley’s model of working memory, the hypothetical central executive engages in
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focusing attention
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consciously repeating the name of a new classmate you want to remember illustrates
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effortful processing
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we encode implicit memories by means of
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automatic processing
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retention of skills and classically conditioned associations without conscious recollection is known as _______ memory
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implicit
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a conscious memory of the name of the first president of the US is a(n) _______ memory
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explicit
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implicit memory is to explicit memory as ______ is to _______
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automatic processing, effortful processing
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a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called ______ memory
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iconic
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chunking refers to
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the organization of information into meaningful units
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we are more likely to remember the words “bicycle, cigarette, and fire” than the words “void, process, and inherent” this best illustrates the value of
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imagery
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jamille is taking french in school. she gets her best grades on vocab tests if she studies for 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she studies for 2 hours the night before the test. this illustrates what is known as
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the spacing effect
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the process of encoding refers to
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getting information into memory
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encoding a written word semantically rather than on the basis of the word’s written appearance illustrates a distinction between
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deep and shallow processing
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which of the following questions would best enable you to remember that you saw the word PEACH on today’s test?
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is the word a type of fruit?
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to remember the information presented in her psych textbook, susan often relates it to her own life experiences. susan’s strategy is an effective memory aid because it facilitates
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semantic encoding
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which type of memory has an essentially limitless capacity?
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long-term memory
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which neural center in the limbic system helps process explicit memories for storage
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hippocampus
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damage to the hippocampus would most likely interfere with a person’s ability to learn
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the names of newly introduced people
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after recovering from a stroke, farina was able to learn how to hit a tennis bal. she is unable, however, to learn and remember the name of the rehab therapist who has been working with her each day to develop her tennis swing. farina is most likely to have suffered damage to her
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hippocampus
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a good night’s sleep improves recall of the previous day’s events by facilitating the transfer of memories from the
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hippocampus to the cortex
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cerebellum is to _____ memory as hippocampus is to _____ memory
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implicit, explicit
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long-term potentiation refers to
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the increased efficiency of synaptic transmission between certain neurons following learning
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by activating the amygdala, stress hormones facilitate
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long-term potentiation
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words, images, and other bits of information used to access a stored memory are called
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retrieval clues
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hearing the word rabbit may lead people to spell the spoked word hair as hare. this best illustrates the outcome of a process known as
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priming
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after learning that kicking would move a crib mobile, infants showed that they recalled this learning best if they were tested in the same crib. this best illustrates
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context-dependent memory
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after his last drinking spree, fakim hid a half-empty liquor bottle. he couldn’t remember where he hid it until he started drinking again. fakim’s pattern of recall best illustrates
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state-dependent memory
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whenever he feels sexually jealous, david is flooded with painful memories of instances when he thought his girlfriend was flirting with other men. david’s experience best illustrates
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mood-congruent memory
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the tendency to recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as
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the serial position effect
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after having brain surgery to stop sever seizures, henry molaison could recall events he experience prior to the surgery but was unable to form new conscious memories. molaison’s memory difficulty most clearly illustrates
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anterograde amnesia
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we are unable to consciously attend to most of the sights an sounds that are continually bombarding us. this fact most clearly contributes to
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encoding failure
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hermann ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initially
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rapid and subsequently slows down
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proactive interference refers to the
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disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned information
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retroactive interference involves the disruption of
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memory retrieval
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after learning the combination for his new locker at school, milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. milton is experiencing the effects of
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retroactive interference
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compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than they actually did. their memory failure best illustrates
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motivated forgetting
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research on memory construction indicates that memories of past experiences are likely to be
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distorted by our current expectations
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in the study led by elizabeth lotus, two groups of observers were asked how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. observers who heard the vividly descriptive word smashed in relation to the accident later recalled
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broken glass at the scene of the accident
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the psychologist jean piaget constructed a vivid, detailed memory of a nursemaid’s thwarting his kidnapping after hearing false reports of such an event. his experience best illustrates
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source amnesia
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which of the following poses the greatest threat to the credibility of children’s recollections of sexual abuse
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the misinformation effect