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PSYCH MC – Flashcard

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The area of psychology that studies, understands, and promotes healthy psychological functioning is: a. Clinical psychology b. Positive psychology c. Counseling psychology d. Happiness psychology
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b
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Happiness is defined as a. A brief emotion b. A long lasting emotion c. A long term sense of satisfaction with one’s life d. Both a and c e. Both b and c
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d
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Simmy is under extreme stress with her upcoming final. Simmy may be affected a. Physically b. Cognitively c. Behaviorally d. All of the above e. A and C only
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d
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_______ is a positive coping strategy; while ________ is a negative style of coping. a. Mediation; resilience b. Pessimistic explanatory style; negative affectivity c. Meditation; alcohol d. Post-traumatic growth; resilience
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c
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Which of the following is a mediating factor in stress? a. The ability to predict when things will happen b. The ability to control when things will happen c. How an event is interpreted d. All of the above e. A and B only
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d
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Kathy is terrified of elevators. She is most likely suffering from a) OCD b) Phobia c) Panic disorder d) GAD
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b
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Troubling thoughts that persist are known as a) Obsessions b) Compulsions c) Rituals d) Panic attacks
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a
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Which of the following treatments deals with phobias by gradual exposure to the item producing the fear? a) Systematic desensitization b) Partial reinforcement c) Behavioral self-management d) Aversion therapy
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a
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Melissa is sleeping too much, she feels tired all of the time, and has been avoiding activities she used to enjoy. Which of the following best describes what Melissa may be experiencing? a. OCD b. major depression c. agoraphobia d. panic attack
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b
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Ross described going for 4 days straight without sleeping at all. He was exploding with energy, supercharged with confidence, and feeling on top of the world. It is likely that Ross was experiencing periods of euphoria and excitement, which can best be described as a. depression b. manic episodes c. panic attacks d. anxiety
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b
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Pairing deep muscle relaxation with items in a fear hierarchy is a) Systematic desensitization b) DBT c) MBCT d) Cognitive therapy
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a
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The best treatment for individuals suffering from schizophrenia is medication. a) True b) False
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a
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The best treatment for individuals suffering from bipolar is medication. a) True b) False
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a
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ECT is used to treat a) GAD b) OCD c) Major depression d) Schizophrenia
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c
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The best type of treatment for eating disorders is: a) Psychoanalysis b) Cognitive-behavioral therapy c) Systematic desensitization d) Medication
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b
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Depokote has long-term effectiveness in treating bipolar disorder. a) True b) False
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a
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Token economies, systematic desensitization, and flooding are examples of: a) Behavior therapies b) Cognitive therapies c) MBCT d) DBT
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a
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The drug Xanax is used to treat a) Depression b) Generalized Anxiety c) Bipolar d) Schizophrenia
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b
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Psychiatric drugs are widely used because they a) teach people how to better solve their problems. b) correct nutritional deficiencies that give rise to psychological disorders. c) help reduce and control symptoms of psychological disorders. d) cure all types of disorders.
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c
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ECT is used a) only after successful treatment with antidepressant drugs. b) in treating severe cases of schizophrenia as well as depression. c) in treating mild to moderate cases of depression. d) in treating cases of severe depression, especially when other approaches have proved unsuccessful.
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d
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The primary goal of _________ therapy is to replace maladaptive behaviors with more adaptive ones. a) behavior b) exposure c) humanistic d) psychodynamic
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a
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A young man is taking psychotropic medications for major depression, but the drugs do not seem to be alleviating his symptoms. Which of the following biomedical approaches might his psychiatrist try next? a) split brain operation b) tardive dyskinesia c) prefrontal lobotomy d) electroconvulsive therapy
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d
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Life changes that are positive can still be stressful because _________ is required. a. Loneliness b. Adjustment c. Depression d. None of the above
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b
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Happiness is defined as a. Brief emotion b. Long term satisfaction with life c. A long, sustained emotion d. A and B only e. B and C only
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d
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Behavioral therapy uses a. Classical conditioning principles b. Operant conditioning principles c. Thought restructuring d. All of the above e. A and B only
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e
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Cognitive therapy uses a. Classical conditioning principles b. Operant conditioning principles c. Thought restructuring d. All of the above
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c
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Imagery in the absence of external stimulation defines _________ which are often observed in people with schizophrenia. a. Rapid flights of ideas b. Delusions c. Hallucinations d. Alogia
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c
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The neurotransmitter associated with depression is a. Serotonin b. Glutamate c. Acetylcholine
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a
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A person who is depressed, but at times, becomes up engaging in rapid speech and flights of ideas is most likely diagnosed as suffering from: a. Major depression b. Bipolar c. OCD d. BDD
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b
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If antidepressant drugs fail to treat major depression, the second line of defense treatment involves placing electrodes on the skull and administering a mild electric current that passes through the brain and causes an epileptic-like seizure in the brain. This is called: a. ECT b. DBS c. TMS d. Lobotomy
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a
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A last resort treatment for major depression that involves placing electrodes inside the brain and a pacemaker-like device in the chest is called: a. ECT b. DBS c. TMS d. Lobotomy
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b
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Which of the following is a criterion used to define abnormal behavior? a. dysfunction b. psychopathology c. developmental processes d. stigma
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a
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A woman with schizophrenia reports hearing voices that tell her she is ugly and worthless. This is an example of a a. hallucination. b. delusion. c. negative symptom. d. alogia.
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a
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Alalyna worries about everything and can never relax. She is very jumpy, has trouble sleeping at night, and has a poor appetite. For the last few months, her anxiety has become so extreme that she is unable to concentrate at work and she is in danger of losing her job. Alayna suffers from a. Panic attacks b. Major depression c. Generalized anxiety d. Obsessive compulsive disorder
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c
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Ever since going through a very painful divorce. Kayla has experienced a number of terrifying “spells” that seem to come out of nowhere. Her heart suddenly starts to pound, she begins to sweat and tremble, and she has trouble breathing. Kayla suffers from a. Panic attacks b. Major depression c. Generalized anxiety d. Obsessive compulsive disorder
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a
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Harry disinfects his shoes, clothing, floor, and doorknobs with bleach several times a day. Nevertheless, he is tormented by worries that his apartment may be contaminated by germs from outside. He doesn’t allow anyone to come into his apartment for fear that they will contaminate his furniture and belongings. Harry suffers from a. Panic attacks b. Major depression c. Generalized anxiety d. Obsessive compulsive disorder
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d
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Whenever she is under stress, Chelsea stops at a local grocery store and fills up her cart with ice cream, boxes of cookies, bags of chips, bakery goods, and bottles of soda. She will lock herself in her room and eat until she throws up. This occurs at least a couple of times a week. Chelsea is showing symptoms of a. Major depression b. Anorexia c. Bulimia d. Generalized anxiety
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c
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5. Adam becomes euphoric and energetic, sleeping only a few hours a night. He talks constantly about his far-fetched plans for making huge amounts of money. After a few days Adam is down in the dumps and is depression. Adam suffers from a. Major depression b. Generalized anxiety c. Bipolar d. OCD
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c
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6. Brittany, a 19 year old college student, has missed almost all of her classes during the last month. She sleeps 14 hours a day, has withdrawn from friends and family, feels worthless, and cries for no apparent reason. Brittany ismost likely suffering from a. Major depression b. Generalized anxiety c. Bipolar d. OCD
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a
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9. People with major depression often have low levels of the neurotransmitter a. Acetylcholine b. GABA c. Glutamate d. Serotonin
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d
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10. Which of the following is an example of a negative symptom of schizophrenia? a. Being unable to show any emotion b. Believing that others can read one’s thoughts c. Hearing voices that are not real d. Using rapid, incoherent speech
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a
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11. A person who is diagnosed with both major depression and generalized anxiety at the same time is said to have a. Diathesis b. Comorbidity c. Comingling disorders
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b
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14. The difference between obsessions and compulsions is that: a. Obsessions are repetitive behaviors, whereas compulsions are fears about specific events b. Obsessions are repetitive, unwanted thoughts, whereas compulsions are repetitive behaviors c. Obsessions are temporary, whereas compulsions are practically permanent d. Obsessions and compulsions are the same thing
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b
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15. Which condition is marked by strong feelings of tension and worry, no matter what the situation may be? a. Phobia b. Panic attack c. Generalized anxiety d. Normal feelings of anxiety
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c
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16. _________ is characterized by periods of intense depression as well as periods with elevated mood and energy levels. a. Major depression b. Unipolar depression c. Bipolar disorder d. Generalized anxiety
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c
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17. A person with schizophrenia who experience delusions that she is royalty is experiencing a a. Positive symptom b. Negative symptom c. Catatonic symptom d. Undifferentiated symptom
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a
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18. Psychologists and psychiatrists use the criteria laid out in the most recent edition of the _______ to diagnose mental disorders. a. Dimensional and Categorical Atlas of Mental Health b. International Diagnostic Guidelines c. Guide to Psychopathology and Abnormal Behavior d. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders
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d
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19. Huynh washes his hands 100 times or more each day. The constant washing causes the skin on his hands to dry and crack, yet he continues to engage in this behavior. Huynh’s behavior is an example of a. An obsession b. Agoraphobia c. A compulsion d. A negative symptom
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c
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20. ______ are false beliefs about reality, whereas ___________ are false perceptions of reality such as hearing internal voices. a. Positive symptoms; negative symptoms b. Negative symptoms; positive symptoms c. Hallucinations; delusions d. Delusions; hallucinations
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d
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21. Systematic desensitization is a _________ therapy. a. Behavioral b. Cognitive c. Medical d. Integrative
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a
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22. The best type of therapy for eating disorders is a. Cognitive b. Behavioral c. Medical d. Cognitive-behavioral
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d
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23. A surgical procedure that is sometimes used to help get rid of severe depression is called a. ECT b. DBS c. TMS d. Lobotomy
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b
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24. Which of the following statements is true about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)? a. ECT can be an effective treatment for severe cases of depression b. ECT is no longer considered a valid or ethical form of treatment c. ECT is still performed in the exact same way that it was delivered in the 1930s and 1940s d. ECT triggers a controlled stroke
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a
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25. Which of the following treatments deals with phobias by gradual exposure to the item producing the fear? a. Systematic desensitization b. Partial reinforcement c. Behavioral self-management d. Aversion therapy
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a
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26. Antipsychotic drugs have provided effective, long-term, and complete cures for schizophrenia. a. True b. False
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b
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27. One highly effective drug for bipolar is a. Clozapine b. Depokote c. Librium d. Valium
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b
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30 __________ are distorted perceptions of reality; __________ are fixed but unfounded beliefs. a. Delusions; hallucinations b. Dreams; fantasies c. Fantasies; dreams d. Hallucinations; delusions
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d
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a technique that essentially causes __________ in the brain. a. increased activity of neurotransmitters b. tardive dyskinesia c. seizures d. MAO inhibitors
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c
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Which of the following is a symptom of a manic episode? a. low energy level b. need for more sleep c. quiet or shy personality d. irritability
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b
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While walking to class one day, you notice a woman who is short of breath, clutching her chest and appears light headed. You are concerned she may be experiencing a heart attack. She tells you she knows it is not her heart, but she suffers from __________ which involve sudden, extreme fear that escalates quickly. a. psychotic episodes b. manic episodes c. panic attacks d. hallucination
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c
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Melisa experienced recurrent, all-consuming thoughts of disaster and death. These ___________ were accompanied by her ___________, which included reapplying deodorant and taking her clothes on and off up to 20 times a day. a. obsessions; compulsions b. compulsions; obsessions c. compulsions; contamination d. negative reinforcers; obsessions
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a
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According to the general adaptation syndrome, during the _______ phase, the body adapts to its high state of arousal as it tries to cope with a stressor. a. exhaustion b. alarm c. resistance d. energy
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b
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Comorbidity of disorders refers to a. symptoms stemming from internal dysfunction. b. the relative risk of death arising from a disorder. c. the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual. d. the existence of disorders on a continuum from normal to abnormal.
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c
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A ________ disorder involves anxiety tied to a specific object or situation. a. generalized anxiety b. environmental c. panic d. phobic
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d
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Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat a. depression. b. schizophrenia. c. anxiety. d. mood disorders.
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b
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The tendency to do what authorities tell us to do is known as a. persuasion. b. obedience. c. conformity. d. the self-fulfilling prophecy.
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b
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Jose wants to study and he also wants to go to a party. Jose’s conflict can best be described as a ___________ conflict. a. avoidance-avoidance b. approach-approach c. approach-avoidance d. hassles
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c
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Melana is driven to succeed. She is ambitious, competitive, and hostile. Melana is exhibiting a ___________. a. internal locus of control b. external locus of control c. Type A behavior pattern d. Type B behavior pattern
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c
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Abdul believes that he is in control of his destiny. Abdul is exhibiting a _____________. a. internal locus of control b. external locus of control c. Type A behavior pattern d. Type B behavior pattern
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a
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Sylvia is in an abusive situation. She believes that there is really nothing she can do to escape her situation. She has given up and become depressed. Research says that Sylvia is exhibiting ___________. a. Type A behavior pattern b. an internal locus of control c. learned helplessness d. a dissociative identity disorder
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c
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The Three Faces of Eve which depicts Christine Sizemore with several personalities is a film describing ____________. a. schizophrenia b. social anxiety c. OCD d. dissociative identity disorder
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a
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Sociopathy is another name for _______. a. borderline personality disorder b. histrionic personality disorder c. antisocial personality disorder d. schizophrenia
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c
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A type of therapy that emphasizes maximizing a client’s inherent capacity for self-actualization is called ________ therapy. a. psychodynamic b. humanistic c. CBT d. aversion
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b
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Changes in behavior or attitudes because of real or imagined pressure is called ________. a. fundamental attribution error b. conformity c. groupthink d. deindividuation
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b
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In the fundamental attribution error observers tend to overestimate the influence of ______ in other’s behavior. a. external factors b. internal factors c. Type A factors d. Type B factors
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b
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A highly cohesive group that strives for agreement sometimes makes faulty decisions. This is called __________. a. fundamental attribution error b. conformity c. groupthink d. obedience
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c
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Prejudice is a ___________ and discrimination is a ___________. a. attitude, attitude b. behavior, attitude c. behavior, behavior d. attitude, behavior
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d
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If we encounter a person who appears to be high on drugs, and we make the fundamental attribution error, we will probably attribute the person’s behavior to a. moral weakness or an addictive personality. b. peer pressure. c. the easy availability drugs on the street. d. society’s acceptance of drug use.
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a
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A person with positive symptoms of schizophrenia is most likely to experience a. alogia. b. delusions. c. withdrawal. d. flat affect.
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b
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Humanistic therapists are likely to emphasize a. hidden or repressed feelings. b. childhood experiences. c. psychological disorders. d. self-fulfillment and growth.
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d
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When drug therapies have not been effective, ECT may be used for treatment, largely for people with a. severe OCD b. severe depression c. schizophrenia d. anxiety
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b
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Melissa experienced recurrent, all-consuming thoughts of disaster and death. These __________ were accompanied by her ____________, which included repeating certain behaviors such as locking her car and entering a room an even number of times. a. obsessions; compulsions b. compulsions; obsessions c. compulsions; contamination d. negatiave reinforcers; obsessions
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a
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To help explain the causes of psychological disorders, researchers often use the _________ perspective, which examines the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. a. medical model b. biopsychosocial c. etiological d. learning
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b
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A man with a diagnosis of ____________ exhibits a fear or anxiety related to social situations, particularly the idea of being scrutinized by those around him. a. generalized anxiety disorder b. panic attack c. social anxiety disorder d. depression
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c
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A neighbor describes a newspaper article she read last night about a man in his 20s who has been known to lie and con others, be aggressive and impulsive, and show little empathy or remorse. These are long-standing traits of his so it is possible that he has ___________. a. borderline personality disorder b. antisocial personality disorder c. dissociative identity disorder d. dissociative amnesia
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b
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Which of the following is a symptom of a manic episode? a. Low energy level b. Need for more sleep c. Quiet or shy personality d. Irritability
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b
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A woman in your neighborhood develops a reputation for being emotionally unstable, intense, and extremely needy. She also doesn’t seem to have a sense of herself and feels empty. She struggles with intimacy and her relationships are unstable. If these are long-standing traits which of the following might she be diagnosed with? a. Borderline personality b. Antisocial personality c. Bipolar d. Major depression
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a
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Dissociative identity disorder involves two or more distinct ___________ within an individual. a. manic episodes b. personality c. panic attacks d. psychotic episodes
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b
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The primary goal of ___________ therapy is to replace maladaptive behviors with more adaptive ones. a. Person-centered b. Cognitive c. Behavioral d. Humanistic
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c
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One factor a therapist needs to consider is how __________ may interact with the therapy process. a. Culture b. Biomedical interventions c. Repression d. Unconscious conflicts
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a