Psych Finals Unit 1

Empiricism
The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
Structuralism
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
Functionalism
A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish
Experimental Psychology
The study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
Behaviorism
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Humanistic Psychology
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth
Cognitive Neuroscience
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
Psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes
Nature-Nurture Issue
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Levels of Analysis
The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
Biopsychosocial Approach
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
Biological Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes
Evolutionary Psychology
The study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
Psychodynamic Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
Behavioral Psychology
The scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
Cognitive Psychology
The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Social-Cultural Psychology
The study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
Psychometricts
The scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.
Basic Research
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Developmental Psychology
The scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Educational Psychology
The study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
Personality Psychology
The study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Social Psychology
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Applied Research
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology
The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
Human Factors Psychology
The study of how people and machines interact resulting in the design of machines and environments
Counseling Psychology
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, and marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
Clinical Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorder
Psychiatry
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
SQ3R
A study method incorporating five steps; Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review
Experimentation and the tabula rasa
Francis Bacon and John Locke helped form modern science by stressing the importance of
Nature is to nurture as
Innate tendencies are to social experience
The scientific aspect of psychology is most concerned with
A a methodology that emphasizes explanation and evaluation
Which of the following professions would most likely treat individuals with psychological disorders?
Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists
Which of the following methods is the best way to enhance comprehension of your psychology text?
Actively process the information you are reading
Which type of basic research psychologist is interested in improving learning?
Educational
One important criticism of introspection is that reported findings from different people are often
Inconsistent
Investigating human behavior from biological, psychological, and social-cultural perspectives
Enhances the integrative explanation and understanding of behavior
Modern scientists would more likely agree with which of the following?
Aristotle’s view that knowledge derives from experiences stored in memory
Psychology today is best defined as the scientific study of
Behavior and mental processes
The school of psychology known as structuralism was interested in studying how to
Isolate the underlying components of what they were studying
A linguist who theorizes that patterns of language acquisition are hard-wired into the brain, yet emphasizes that the particular language spoken by an individual is learned from the environment, would most likely contend that
Nature works on what nurture endows