Psych Exam 3: Chapter 8 Development

Developmental Psychology
A Field of psychology that examines physical, cognitive, and socioemotional changes across the lifespan

Maturation
Physical growth beginning with conception and ending when the body stops growing

Critical period
Specific time frame in which an organism is sensitive to environmental facts, and certain behaviors and abilities are readily shaped or altered by events or experiences

Cross-sectional method
A research design that examines people of different ages at a single point in time

Longitudinal method
A research design that examines the same sample of people over a period of time to determine age-related changes

Cross-sequential method
A research design that examines groups of people of different ages, following them across time

Chromosomes
Inherited threadlike structures composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A molecules that provides the instructions for the development and production of cells

Gene
Specified segment of a DNA molecule

Genotype
An individual’s complete collection of genes

Phenotype
The observable expression or characteristics of one’s genetic inheritance

Epigenetics
A field of study that examines the processes involved in the development of phenotypes

Dominant gene
One of a paid of genes that has power over the expression of an inherited characteristic

Recessive gene
one of a pair of genes that is dominated by the other gene in the pair

Zygote
a single cell formed by the union of a sperm cell and egg

Monozygotic twins
identical twins who develop from one egg inseminated by two sperm, and are genetically similar to any sibling pair

Dizygotic twins
fraternal twins who develop from two eggs inseminated by two sperm, and are genetically similar to any sibling pair

Embryo
The unborn human from the beginning of the 3rd week of pregnancy, lasting through the 8th week of prenatal development

Teratogens
Environmental a gens that can damage the growing zygote, embryo, or fetus

Fetal alcohol syndrome
Delays in normal development that result from moderate to heavy alcohol use during pregnancy

Fetus
The unborn human from 2 months following conception to birth

Cooing
Production of vowel-like sounds by infants, often repeated in a joyful manner

Babbling
The combining of consonants with vowels typically displayed at the age of 4-6 months

Telegraphic speech
Two-word phrases typically used by infants around the age of 18 months

Schema
A collection of ideas that represent a basic unit of understanding

Assimilation
Using existing info and ideas to understand new knowledge and experiences

Accommodation
A restructuring of old ideas to make a place for new info

Sensorimotor stage
Paiget’s stage of cognitive development during which infants use their sensory capabilities and motor skills to learn about the surrounding world

Object Permanence
A milestone of the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development; an infant’s realization that objects and people still exist even when out of sight or touch

Preoperational stage
Piaget’s stage of cognitive development during which children can start to use language to explore and understand their worlds

Egocentrism
Being able to imagine the world only from one’s own perspective

Conservation
Refers to the unchanging properties of volume, mass, or amount in relation to appearance

Concrete operational stage
Piaget’s stage of cognitive development during which children begin to think more logically, but mainly in reference to concrete objects and circumstances

Formal operational stage
Piaget’s stage of cognitive development during which children begin to think more logically and systematically

Scaffolding
Pushing children to go just beyond what they are competent and comfortable doing, while providing help in a decreasing manner

Temperament
Characteristic differences in behavioral patterns and emotional reactions

Attachment
The degree to which an infant feels an emotional connection with primary caregivers

Adolescence
The transition period between late childhood and early adulthood

Puberty
The period of development during which the body changes and becomes sexually mature and capable of reproduction

Primary Sex characteristics
Organs associated with reproduction, including ovaries, uterus, vagina, penis, scrotum, and testes

Secondary sex characteristics
The development of pubic, underarm and body hair in boys and girls along with the variety of other gender-specific bodily changes not associated with reproduction

Menarche
the point at which menstruation begins

Spermarche
a boy’s first ejaculation

Identity
A sense of self based on values, beliefs, and goals

Preconventional moral reasoning
Kohlberg’s stage of moral development in which a person, usually a child, focuses on the consequences of behaviors, good or bad, and is concerned with avoiding punishment

Conventional moral reasoning
Kohlberg’s stage of moral development in which right and wrong are determined by the individual’s beliefs about morality, which sometimes do not coincide with society’s rules and regulations

Postconventional moral reasoning
Kohlberg’s stage of moral development in which right and wrong are determined by the individual’s beliefs about morality, which sometimes do not coincide with society’s rules and regulations

Menopause
The time when a woman no longer ovulates, her menstrual cycle stops, and she is no longer capable of reproduction

Crystalized intelligence
Knowledge gained through learning and experience

Fluid intelligence
The ability to think in the abstract and create associations among concepts

Authoritarian Parenting
A rigid parenting style characterized by strict rules and poor communication skills

Authoritative Parenting
A parenting style characterized by high expectations, strong support, and respect for children

Permissive parenting
A parenting style characterized by low demands of children and few limitations

Uninvolved parenting
A parenting style characterized by a parent’s indifference to a child, including a lack of emotional involvement

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