Psych Chapter 13

Social psychology
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
frustration-aggression hypothesis
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression (ROBBER WANTS MONEY, BECOME AGGRESSIVE)
Men, south, culture affects standards of aggressive acts
A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority.
A negative action toward a social group or its members on account of group membership
prisoner’s dilemma game
A social dilemma in which the goals of the individual compete with the goals of another individual (or sometimes with a group of other individuals)
A phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values (lynching rioting gang raping
diffusion of responsibility
The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way (seeing somone cheating, it is right)
Behaviors that benefit other people and for which there is no discernable extrinsic reward, recognition, or appreciation.
kin selection
the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives
reciprocal altruism
Behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
social influence
The ability to control another person’s behavior. (I jaywalk, other people jaywalk after me
hedonic motive
desire to experience pleasure and avoid pain (punishment for drivers under 18..reduce deaths
approval motive
people are motivated to be accepted and to avoid being rejected (not being the only one getting parking ticket)
accuracy motive
people are motivated to believe what is right and to avoid believing what is wrong
Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.
normative influence
The fact that when someone helps you you are more likely to help them demonstrates the psychological phenomenon called
norm of reciprocity
The unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them
door-in-the-face technique
Persuasive technique involving making an unreasonably large request before making the small request we’re hoping to have granted
A change in one’s behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people
A form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
informational influence
A phenomenon that occurs when a person’s behavior provides information about what is good or right
systematic persuasion
the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason (logic and reason)
heuristic persuasion
the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion (habit and emotion)
foot-in-the-door technique
persuasive technique involving making a small request before making a bigger one
cognitive dissonance
An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs… can explain why fraternities use hazing and why some religious cults require that members give all of their worldly possessions to the cult
social cognition
the processes by which people come to understand others
perceptual confirmation
A phenomenon that occurs when observers perceive what they expect to perceive. some believed bball player was black, one thought was white……The tendency for people to see what they expect to see is called
self-fulfilling prophecy
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true. (sterotype threat-people know observers have negative sterotype against them)
The tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them (HM Agents are sociable…then we find out they are not so we believe they are not sociable(MODIFY)
an inference about the cause of a persons’s behavior
correspondence bias
The tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person’s behavior was caused by the situation
Actor-observer effect
The tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others
negative affect theory
Negative feelings and experiences are the main cause of your anger/aggressio
If you’ve been telling your new date how much you love watching football and then your date mentions having season tickets for the local team, you will probably experience _____ if you actually lied to impress your date and you don’t really like football at all.
cognitive dissonance
When we see ads that say how popular something is, the ad is trying to use _____ influence to get us to buy their product
Many people were influenced to invest in a scheme that promised very large returns. What basic want made them susceptible to social influence
hedonic motive
When your parents said no in response to your request to do something, and you responded by saying that all your friends’ parents were allowing them to do it, you were trying to make your parents susceptible to the psychological phenomenon of
When you are visiting another country with completely different cultural beliefs and societal guidelines than your own, it is often helpful to imitate the behavior of the people you see around you. This behavior best illustrate the social phenomenon of
normative influence
What is the tendency to ignore the situation and to focus on the person’s disposition
fundamental attribution error
What is the difference between perceptual confirmation and self-fulfilling prophecy?
in PC, people see what they expect, SF, people cause what they expect