Psych Chapter 1

structuralism
the view that objective introspection could be used on thoughts as well as physical sensations is known as; the belief that every experience can be broken down into its individual emotions and sensations is known as

Functionalism
is a school of psychology focused on how organisms use their learning and perceptual abilities to function in their environment; influenced by Darwin’s ideas about natural selection

Gestalt Psychology
is a school of psychology centered on the belief that people naturally seek out patterns, or wholes, in the sensory information available to them; part of the cognitive branch

Cognitive Psychology
is a field of psychology focused on the workings of the human brain and seeking to understand how people process the information that they collect from their environments

psychodynamic approach
stressed the importance of early life experiences

What did Watson believe about behavior?
behavior is learned

Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory
the ideas that behavior stems from unconscious motivation, is related to repressed conflict, and that personality forms in the first 6 years of life

Who is the “father of psychology”
Wilhelm Wundt

William James
created the functionalism approach; focused on how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play

Edward Titchener
created structuralism approach

Charles Darwin
was a naturalist who developed the theory of evolution, based on his ideas about natural selection

Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis…
is still used today by professionals, with less emphasis on sex and sexual motivations

reflexive response
Pavlov; showed that it can be induced by a formerly unrelated stimulus

phobia
persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation

delusion
persistent false belief

hallucinations
false sensory perceptions that a person believes to be real

psychoanalysis
psychotherapy that relates closely to Freudian concepts like the influence of the unconscious; it requires patients to talk to a psychiatrist about their lives while the psychiatrist listens, analyzes, and interprets each word

behaviorism
concentrates on observable behavior that can be directly measured and recorded

evolutionary psychology
explores ways in which patterns of human behavior may be beneficial to people’s survival

Rene Descartes
french philosopher who believed in Socrates’ idea that mind is distinct from body, and began to investigate how the 2 might be connected

Freud believed…
that early childhood experiences were the most important

dualism
the belief that the mind does not cease to exist when the body dies, and that thoughts and ideas can exist separately from the body

objectivity
the ability to look at something fairly , without taking one side or another; Wilhem Wundt argued that the mind could be examined both scientifically and objectively

sensationalism
the idea that our senses are our only source of knowledge

Why was William James reluctant to accept Wundt’s regarding introspection and structuralism?
James felt that consciousness is an ever-changing phenomenon, and that it was not possible to objectively measure it without altering it

John Watson believed that phobias…
are learned through the process of conditioning

within the field of psychology, mental processes refer to…
all internal covert activities of our minds

this perspective focuses on the biological bases fro universal mental characteristics that all humans share
evolutionary

biopsychosocial perspective
is focused on the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors

sociocultural perspective
psychology centered on the belief that behavior and mental processes are shaped by a combination of multiple factors, such as prior learning experiences, internal unconscious forces, and the social and cultural content

psychologist
has a doctorate degree and works with humans or animals in a variety of settings

psychiatrist
has a medical degree and is a medical doctor

psychoanalyst
practices the treatment that freud invented called psychoanalysis

psychiatric social worker
helps people resolve problems in their lives specifically related to poverty or oppression

when rashid graduated college, he believed he had finally achieved his full potential… Maslow called this
self-actualization

self-aggrandizement
making oneself appear bigger or more important through the accumulation of wealth, power, or reputation

the largest subfield of psychology is…
clinical

psychologists in the counseling specialization…
must be licensed to practice in their states

biopsychology has found mounting evidence of a biological cause for…
schizophrenia

____ focuses on how people think, remember, store and use information
cognitive psychology

psychodynamic perspective draws from the work of
Sigmund Freud

when you make a prediction about the explanation for your observations, you are ___
forming a hypothesis

Mrs. O’Connor participated in a study in which she was told she would try out a new allergy medicine. She was in the group that received a sugar pill but she believed that the pill did indeed help control her allergy symptoms. This phenomenon is known as ___
the placebo effect

placebo effect
an extreme example of the power of suggestion

one draw back to the survey method is ___
the way the question is worded can affect the answer

in an experiment in which half of the participants are given a caffeinated product and half are given a decaffeinated product to determine if caffeine will make them more talkative, the independent variable is___
the presence or absence of caffeine

what is the main advantage of laboratory observation?
the degree of control it gives the researcher

what is a guideline for dealing with human research participants?
data must remain confidential

which research method will allow researchers to determine the cause of a behavior?
experiment

survey
a series of questions about people’s behavior or opinions, in the form of a questionnaire or interview; determine cause and effect

naturalistic observation
the study of people or animals in their own environment

laboratory observation
the study of people or animals in a controlled setting

an institutional review board reviews___
a study’s safety and consideration for the research participants

observer-expectancy effect
when a participant knows they are being observed so they change their behavior to look better

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