psych ch 4/5

question

One criticism of Piaget’s theory is that it overestimates the influence of interactions with family members, peers, and teachers on cognitive development. T/F
answer

False
question

In Contrast to Piaget’s view that children develop general theories of the world, more recent views of children’s cognitive development propose that children develop more specialized theories about narrow areas. T/F
answer

True
question

By the preschool years, childrens naive theories of biology include the idea that animals can move themselves, but inanimate objects can only be moved by other objects or by people T/F
answer

True
question

1)The term mental__?__ refers to mental and neural structures that are built in and that allow the mind to operate.
answer

hardware
question

2)The term mental __?__ refers to mental programs that are the basis for performing particular tasks
answer

software
question

3)__?__ determines which info will be processed further by an individual
answer

attention
question

4)An __?__ occurs when a person starts, fixes his eyes on a stimulus, shows changes in heart rate and brain wave activity
answer

orienting response
question

5)The diminished response to a stimulus as it becomes more familiar is called__?__
answer

habituation
question

6)__?__Occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally produced by another stimulus
answer

classical conditioning
question

7)__?__focuses on the relationship between the consequences of behavior and the llikelihood that the behavior will occur
answer

operant conditioning
question

8)Peoples’ memory for the significant events and experiences of their own lives is called __?__
answer

autobiographical memory
question

9)The counting principle that states that there must be one and only one number name for each object counted is known as the __?__principle
answer

one-to-one
question

10)The counting principle that states that number names must always be counted in the same order is known as the __?__principle
answer

stable-order
question

11)The understanding that the last number name denotes the number of objects one is counting is called the __?__principle
answer

cardinality
question

1)In the information-processing view, human cognition is thought to be based on mental hardware and mental software
answer

True
question

2)Information-processing theorists believe that as children develop, their mental software becomes more complex, more powerful, and more efficient
answer

True
question

3)An orienting response is the diminished response to a stimulus as it becomes more familiar
answer

False
question

4)Young children focus their attention as effectively as adults
answer

False
question

5)Infants and toddlers are not capable of learning through classical conditioning
answer

False
question

6)Operant conditioning focuses on the relation between the consequences of behavior and the likelihood that the behavior will reoccur
answer

True
question

7)Young babies cannot remember events for more than one day
answer

False
question

8)Structures in the brain that are responsible for retrieving memories develop much later than those responsible for the initial storage of info
answer

True
question

9)Autobiographical memory emerges during infancy
answer

False
question

10)Law-enforcement officials and child-protection workers can almost always accurately judge whether children are telling the truth about child abuse
answer

False
question

11)Childrens testimony is more accurate when they are encouraged to trust the interviewer and told that the interviewer will not try to trick them
answer

False
question

12)Children’s testimony is more reliable when they are asked questions that have them evaluate alternative hypotheses rather than questions that ask for a single correct answer
answer

True
question

13)Child witnesses are more reliable when they are questioned repeatedly on a single issue
answer

False
question

14)By 2 years of age, children usually know some number words and have begun to count
answer

True
question

15)The cardinality principle refers to the principle that there must be one and only one number name for each object that is counted
answer

False
question

16)The chinese, japanese, and korean number systems are more regular than the english system, helping to explain why children learn to count sooner in Asian countries than in the U.S.
answer

True
question

1)__?__is the mutual, shared understanding among participants in an activity
answer

Intersubjectivity
question

2)__?__occurs when children are involved in structured activities with others who are more skilled
answer

Guided participation
question

3)The difference between what someone can do with assistance and what she can do by herself is called__?__
answer

zone of proximal development
question

4)A teaching style in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance that they offer to the learner’s needs is called
answer

scaffolding
question

5)Comments that are not intended for others but serve the purpose of helping children regulate their behavior are known as __?__
answer

private speech
question

1)According to Vygotsky, children progress faster developmentally when they collaborate with more skilled persons than when they learn on their own T/F
answer

True
question

2)The zone of proximal development is the area between children’s capability when working alone and their performance when working with the guidance of a more skilled person T/F
answer

T
question

3)Vygotsky proposed that cognition is initially under the childs independent control and then gradually begins functioning in a social setting as well T/F
answer

F
question

4)Children require more scaffolding with a familiar task than with a novel task than with a novel task T/F
answer

F
question

5)Private speech is an intermediate step toward self-regulation of cognitive skills
answer

T
question

6)As children gain greater skill, private speech becomes “inner speech”
answer

T
question

1)Unique speech sounds that can be used to create words are called __?__
answer

phonemes
question

2)Speech that adults use with babies that is slow, loud, and has exaggerated changes in pitch is called __?__speech
answer

infant-directed
question

3)Early vowel-like sounds that babies produce are known as __?__
answer

cooing
question

4)Speech-like sounds that consist of a vowel-consonant combination are known as __?__
answer

babbling
question

5)The fact that children make connections between new words and referents to quickly that they cant be considering all possible meanings is known as__?__
answer

fast mapping
question

6)An __?__occurs when children define a word too broadly
answer

overextension
question

7)An __?__occurs when children define a word too narrowly
answer

underextension
question

8)The ability to remember speech sounds briefly is called __?__
answer

phonological memory
question

9)Vocabularies of children who use a(n)__?__language style are dominated by names of objects, persons, or actions.
answer

referential
question

10)Vocabularies of children who use a(n)__?__language style include many social phrases that are used like a single word
answer

expressive
question

11)Young children often use__?__ speech, which contains only the words that are directly relevant to meaning, and nothing more
answer

telegraphic
question

12)Words or endings of words that make a sentence grammatical are known as __?__
answer

grammatical morphemes
question

13)Applying grammatical rules to words that are exceptions to the rules is known as __?__
answer

overregularization
question

1-Infants can distinguish speech sounds as early as one month after birth T/F
answer

T
question

2-Young infants can discriminate speech sounds that do not occur in their native language, but they later lose this ability T/F
answer

T
question

3-When using infant-directed speech, adults speak quickly and in a monotone voice T/F
answer

F
question

4-Infants begin to babble before they are able to coo. T/F
answer

F
question

5-Infants typically understand many words before they can say them T/F
answer

T
question

6-Fast mapping refers to the fact that children make connections between new words and referents so rapidly that they cannot be considering all possible meanings for the new word T/F
answer

T
question

7-Toddlers are more likely to learn the name of an object when adults look at the object while saying its name instead of looking elsewhere T/F
answer

T
question

8-When children are learning new words, they usually follow the rule that if an unfamiliar word is heard in the presence of objects that already have names and those that don’t, the word refers to one of the objects that doesnt already have a name T/F
answer

T
question

9-Early language learning depends mostly on attentional processes to learn new words, but later on, language and social cues become more important T/F
answer

T
question

10-A childs language environment is the single factor that has the most impact on rate of vocabulary growth T/F
answer

T
question

11-When children define a word too narrowly, it is referred to as an underextension T/F
answer

T
question

12-Children with an expressive language learning style have vocabularies that are dominated by words that are the names of objects, persons, and actions T/F
answer

F
question

13-Preschool children who often watch Sesame Street typically have larger vocabularies in kindergarten than do preschoolers who watch Sesame Street less often T/F
answer

T
question

14-Phonemes are words or endings of words that make a sentence grammatical T/F
answer

F
question

15-Overregularization occurs when children apply rules to words that are exceptions to the rule T/F
answer

T
question

16-Behaviorists believew that children are born with a “grammer learning processor” T/F
answer

F
question

17-Parents do not usually encourage conversational turn-taking until their children have said their first words T/F
answer

F
question

18-By the time they are preschoolers, children have begun to adjust their speech to match the listener and context T/F
answer

T
question

19-Preschoolers are able to recognize when a message is ambiguous and will ask for clarification T/F
answer

F
question

In Piaget’s theory, psychological structures that organize experience and regulate behavior are called: a)schemes b)core knowledge hypotheses c)scaffolding d)mental software
answer

A)Schemes
question

According to Piaget, intellectual adaptation occurs through: a)the processes of accommodation and assimilation b)the process of maturation c)the formation of associations between stimuli and responses d)imitation of others
answer

A)the processes of accommodation and assimilation
question

When new experiences are easily fit into existing schemes, Piaget would say that__?__ is taking place a)fast mapping b)assimilation c)accommodation d)overextension
answer

B) assimilation
question

Two-year-old Joey played with many soft and furry stuffed animals, picking them up by their ears and dragging them around the house. Joey’s parents gave him a real live soft and furry puppy for his bday. Joey tried to pick her up by her ears & drag her around the house. The puppy wiggled &whimpered.Joey decided he was going to have to change his scheme for playing w soft & furry objects. Piaget wld say that this is an exp of?
answer

accommodation
question

In which of the following is Piaget’s periods of cognitive development in proper sequence? a)preoper.,concrete oper., sensorimotor, formal oper. b)sensorimotor, preoper., formal oper., concrete oper. c)sens., preoper., concrete oper., form oper d)preoper., sens., form. oper., concrete oper.
answer

C)Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
question

The end of the sensorimotor period is marked by: a)reflexive responding b)the ability to use mental symbols c)the absence of objects permanence d)unintentional behavior
answer

B)the ability to use mental symbols
question

Piaget’s concept of egocentrism is best illustrated by which of the following? a)5yo katie preening in front of a mirror b)4yo kelly holding a pic in front of the TV so Big Bird can see it c)6yo kaitlin callin her friend kara everyday to see if she can play d)3yo kaylie believing that she becomes a princess when she puts on a crown
answer

B)4 year old Kelly holding a picture in front of the television so Big Bird can see it
question

Which of the following statements best demonstrates Piaget’s concept of animation: a)”Luke hates cats” b)”Nick is terribly bull-headed” c)”Jake claimed the ball was tired and just didn’t want to go in the basket” d)”Carson flew like a bird down to the end of the court”
answer

C)”Jake claimed the ball was tired and just didn’t want to go in the basket”
question

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of preoperational thinking? a)ability to distinguish btween appearance and reality b)egocentrism c)animism d)centration
answer

A) ability
question

Confusion between appearance and reality is a characteristic of : a)sensorimotor thinking b)concrete operational thinking c)preoperational thinking d)formal operational thinking
answer

C) preoperational thinking
question

Which of the following is NOT a criticism of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development? a)P’s theory overestimates cogn. competense in infants and young children b)P’s theory is too vague to test scientifically c)childrens performance across several of P’s tasks is < consistant than it shd be according to P's theory d)P's theory undervalues the influence of the sociocultural environment on cognitive development
answer

A) Piaget’s theory overestimates cognitive competence in infants and young children
question

The idea that infants are born w/ rudimentary knowledge of the wrld, w/ the knowledge being elaborated based on the childrens experience, is known as: a)adaptation b)equilibration c)scaffolding d)the core knowledge hypothesis
answer

D)the core knowledge hypothesis
question

Preschool childrens naive theories of biology include all of the following EXCEPT: a)thinking that inanimate objects can move by themselves b)understanding that living things have offspring that resemble their parents c)believing that animals get bigger but inanimate objects do not grow d)knowing that the insides of animate objects contain different materials than the insides of inanimate objects
answer

A)thinking that inanimate objects can move by themselves

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member