Psych 235 Ch.15

A)
young military recruits who hope to be sent into combat.
1.
The power of the invincibility fable may be observed in:
A)
young military recruits who hope to be sent into combat.
B)
a 17-year-old boy who drives cautiously.
C)
an 18-year-old girl who insists that her boyfriend use a condom during sex.
D)
an adolescent who sings in front of the bathroom mirror, knowing that the neighbors must be listening.

B)
put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale.
2.
Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably:
A)
solve the problem through a trial-and-error strategy.
B)
put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale.
C)
understand the inverse relationship between distance and weight.
D)
put all the weights on one side of the scale.

C)
Hypothetical thought involves imagined possibilities.
3.
Which of the following statements about hypothetical thought is true?
A)
Hypothetical thought is tied to the everyday world as the individual knows it.
B)
Hypothetical thought is emotionally based.
C)
Hypothetical thought involves imagined possibilities.
D)
Hypothetical thought is an aspect of concrete operational thinking.

C)
hypothetical thinking.
4.
Justine is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justine tends to ask critical questions such as “Why can’t I have wine with dinner? You do.” or “I don’t understand why I’ll be able to vote when I’m 18, but I have to wait until I’m 21 to buy alcohol!” This type of thinking is demonstrating Justine’s:
A)
inductive reasoning.
B)
perceptual thinking.
C)
hypothetical thinking.
D)
deductive reasoning.

A)
deductive reasoning.
5.
All Christians believe in the Bible; Josiah is a Christian; therefore Josiah believes in the Bible. This is an example of:
A)
deductive reasoning.
B)
theoretical reasoning.
C)
concrete reasoning.
D)
reductive reasoning.

C)
deductive reasoning.
6.
Brian has met three girls who tell him that Titanic is their all-time favorite movie. He concludes that all girls love Titanic. Brian has just used:
A)
hypothetical reasoning.
B)
inductive reasoning.
C)
deductive reasoning.
D)
adolescent egocentrism.

B)
intuitive thinking.
7.
Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens’ health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of:
A)
adolescent egocentrism.
B)
intuitive thinking.
C)
inductive reasoning.
D)
deductive reasoning.

B)
Adolescents would be more likely than preadolescents to change their minds.
8.
Imagine a group of students who support the death penalty being asked the following question: “Would you still support the death penalty even if you learned that low-income individuals have a harder time defending against it than do higher-income individuals?” Which of the following statements is the most likely result?
A)
Preadolescents would be more likely than adolescents to change their minds.
B)
Adolescents would be more likely than preadolescents to change their minds.
C)
Both preadolescents and adolescents would tend to continue supporting the death penalty.
D)
Neither preadolescents nor adolescents would tend to continue supporting the death penalty.

C)
Sixteen-year-olds will be able to do this, but 8-year-olds will be unable to do this.
9.
A professor asks a group of 8-year-olds and a group of 16-year-olds to argue that they should receive a reduction in their allowance, an argument with which they all surely disagree. Which of the following statements is a likely result of this study?
A)
Almost none of the students will be able to do this.
B)
Eight-year-olds will be able to do this, but 16-year-olds will be unable to do this.
C)
Sixteen-year-olds will be able to do this, but 8-year-olds will be unable to do this.
D)
Almost all of the students will be able to do this easily.

B)
recognize alternative possibilities.
10.
Compared with that of preadolescents, adolescents’ thinking about science is more likely to:
A)
be logically inconsistent.
B)
recognize alternative possibilities.
C)
be concretely tied to the situation.
D)
maintain traditional ideas.

A)
development may be far less stagelike than Piaget believed.
11.
Recent research examining the development of formal logic has demonstrated that:
A)
development may be far less stagelike than Piaget believed.
B)
those who have developed this capability use it consistently in every situation.
C)
development occurs much more quickly than Piaget believed.
D)
adolescents across cultures develop this capability at the same age.

B)
Timothy is popular and an athlete.
12.
Klaczynski’s studies of adolescents’ analytical thinking used the story of Timothy, a good-looking, strong high school senior. Identify the statement about Timothy that is MOST likely to be true:
A)
Timothy has a girlfriend and is a teacher’s pet.
B)
Timothy is popular and an athlete.
C)
Timothy is a teacher’s pet.
D)
Timothy is popular and has a girlfriend.

C)
most adolescents do not think as analytically as their capabilities would allow.
13.
Klaczynski’s studies of younger and older adolescents’ analytical thinking indicated that:
A)
younger adolescents were rarely logical, whereas older adolescents were nearly always logical.
B)
individuals who were analytical on some problems were analytical on all problems.
C)
most adolescents do not think as analytically as their capabilities would allow.
D)
younger adolescents were more biased toward dismissing research that was contrary to their own beliefs.

C)
sunk cost fallacy.
14.
Brent is determined to get a place on his middle school’s basketball team. He practices at least 2 hours each day. He rarely makes a basket and becomes quickly winded because of his severe asthma. His determination is fueled by his:
A)
analytic thought processes.
B)
crisp, accurate logic.
C)
sunk cost fallacy.
D)
economy of thought.

A)
school practices such as teaching
15.
Scholars who study international differences in academic achievement agree that _____ is (are) far more responsible for academic differences than are cultural differences.
A)
school practices such as teaching
B)
the number of immigrants
C)
poverty
D)
geography

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