Psych 2314 Chapter 11 & 12

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Moral Development
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What is the term that refers to the changes in people’s sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues?
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Empathy
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According to developmentalists, what lies at the heart of moral behavior?
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Preconvential Morality
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A seventh-grade student is tempted to cheat on an exam, but talks himself out of it because he is afraid he will get caught and will fail the course. This student is demonstrating
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. adolescence; lack of cognitive development.
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Kohlberg proposes that moral development occurs in a fixed order, and that people are unable to reach the highest stage of moral reasoning until __________ due to ___________________
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Carol Gilligan
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Which of the following psychologists developed the three stages of moral development for women?
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Altruistic
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__________ behavior is done to help others and requires clear self-sacrifice.
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Permissive
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Billy is a 5-year-old child who does not have a regular bedtime, is permitted to neglect personal hygiene such as brushing his teeth, and doesn’t usually participate in any simple chores, such as picking up his toys in his room. It would appear that Billy parents’ style of parenting is
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authoritarian parenting
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Meredith’s 5-year-old friends at the playground ran around from the rides to the slides, but Meredith’s mother told her she had to stay on the swings and not move to another place in the playground. When Meredith complained that the other children were allowed to play where they wanted, Meredith’s mother told her to stay on the swings \”because I said so.\” This is an example of
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Uninvolved
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In its most extreme form, _________ parenting results in neglect
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withdrawn behavior and low sociability skills.
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Maurice is a child of authoritative parents. He is likely to grow up exhibiting all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
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Spirituality
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Joan feels a strong sense of attachment to a sacred entity. This feeling is called
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Aggression
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What is the term for intentional injury or harm to another person?
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Personality and Social development of the child
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According to developmental research, what contributes to the decline of aggression in preschool children?
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Emotional Self-regulation
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What is the term for the capability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity?
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Instrumental Aggression
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Two boys, ages 3 and 4, are playing with cars, and both boys want the bigger red car. As one boy reaches for the red car, the other strikes him, knocking it out of his hand, and taking the red car for himself. This is an example of
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relational aggression
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In the playground, Amanda calls Janey names, won’t include her in the game of hopscotch, and makes fun of her. This is an example of
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a learned behavior rooted in poor parenting.
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Ethologist Konrad Lorenz, evolutionary theorists and sociobiologists all suggest that aggression includes all of the following EXCEPT
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be as or more aggressive than the model.
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Bandura’s research indicates that when children watch adults modeling aggressive behavior with the Bobo doll, they are likely to
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increases in aggressive behaviors that can extend into adulthood.
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Despite the fact that results are primarily correlational, overwhelming research evidence suggests that observation of televised aggression leads to
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the fight-or-flight stage.
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When discussing marital aggression, all of the following are stages that the couple go through EXCEPT
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cycle of violence hypothesis.
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The theory that abuse and neglect of children leads them to be predisposed to abusiveness as adults is called
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a person with Alzheimer’s or various forms of dementia living in his/her child’s home
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Which of the following older people is most likely to experience elder abuse?
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Androgens
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Research indicates that when girls are exposed to unusually high levels of ________ prenatally, they are more likely to display stereotypical male behaviors.
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Social Learning
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The ____________ approach believes children learn gender-related behaviors and expectations by observing others and how they are rewarded for acting in gender-appropriate ways
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gender-schema
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using his/her own cognitive abilities to develop \”rules\” about what is right and wrong for males and females
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Kohlberg; cognitive-developmental theory
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The concept that preschool-age children believe that differences in sex are based, not on biological factors, but on the differences in boys’ and girls’ appearance and/or behavior(s) is expressed by what researcher and theory?
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4 or 5 years of age
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At approximately what age do boys and girls understand the concept of gender constancy?
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IQ development
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Developmentalists suggest that along with early/late maturity, all of the following may be more pertinent in determining an adolescent’s behavior EXCEPT
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permissiveness with affection.
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According to current norms, if sexual intercourse occurs within the context of a long-term, committed, or loving relationship, it is called
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Sub-Saharan Africa.
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Social norms oppose premarital sex for women in all of these areas EXCEPT
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Homosexuality
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If a person is attracted to another person of the same sex, this is
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Transgendered
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When a person pursues sexual reassignment surgery because they feel as though they were born with the wrong physical sex (i.e., trapped in the wrong body), this is called being
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produced by a combination of genetic, psychological, and environmental factors.
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Studies indicate that sexual orientation is
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intimacy-versus-isolation stage.
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According to Erikson, the period of post-adolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close relationships with others is called the
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companionate love in which strong affection is apparent with people whose lives are deeply involved.
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According to psychologist Robert Sternberg, the components of love include all of the following EXCEPT a(n)
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Pakistani college students
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Surveys indicate that a high proportion of the following college students would consider it acceptable to marry without love.
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China
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In what culture do men rank good health more important in marriage than love?
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Homagany
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The tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, and religion is referred to as which of the following?
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Marriage Gradiant
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Jorge has been taught to marry a woman who is younger, smaller, and lower in status. This is referred to as the
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Partners establish early on in the marriage the superior and inferior positions of the partners
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Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of a happy marriage?

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