PSYCH 111

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Which of the following approaches to personality is MOST firmly rooted in empirical research?
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Behavioral approach
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The crucial developmental task associated with the anal stage is
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toilet training.
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According to Freud, which of the following is entirely unconscious?
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The id
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Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality focuses on all of the following EXCEPT
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the potential for personal growth.
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The personality theory of Carl Rogers is known as
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person-centered theory.
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Chris has a greatly inflated sense of self-worth, a sense of entitlement, and a constant need for attention. It is most likely that Chris has
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narcissistic personality disorder.
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Five-year-old Samuel often tells his older sister, \”I can’t wait to grow up, so I can marry mommy.\” Samuel is most likely in the stage of personality development that Freud referred to as the
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phallic stage.
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Jason just sat down to work on his term paper when his friends called and invited him to a party. If Jason decides he will only go to the party after he finishes outlining the term paper, his decision reflects the functioning of his
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ego.
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Mike is from Australia. Based on research using the Big Five personality traits, you would predict Mike will be high in
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extraversion.
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Freud ascribed great importance to sexual and aggressive impulses, mainly because they
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tend to be routinely frustrated.
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Which of the following definitions of \”personality\” best reflects the views of B. F. Skinner?
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A collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations
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Nikolas is a nonconformist who is daring and likes to try new things. He is extremely imaginative and has a wide range of interests. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Nikolas would probably score
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high in openness.
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Research on national character using the Big Five personality traits found that
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subjects displayed considerable disagreement concerning what was typical of their culture.
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Mary just completed a personality scale designed to measure the three higher-order traits identified by Hans Eysenck. She scored low in the personality trait of neuroticism, suggesting that Mary tends to be
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relaxed and high in self-esteem.
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Hal is fearful of men who are friendly toward him, convinced that they are all homosexuals attempting to seduce him. Should it be the case that Hal is himself a latent homosexual, fearful of admitting this even to himself, we might conclude that he is using the defense mechanisms of repression and
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projection.
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Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward psychologically, a phenomenon that Freud called
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fixation.
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Deirdre used to be shy and unwilling to speak out in class. Last semester, she was in a class that involved a lot of discussion groups, and she found that her classmates were willing to listen attentively to her ideas and often asked her for input when the discussion bogged down. Now Deirdre is more outspoken and confident during class discussions. Based on principles of operant conditioning, Deirdre’s new outspoken, confident manner is MOST likely a result of
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positive reinforcement.
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According to Jung, one’s personal unconscious contains
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repressed or forgotten information.
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Bess uses a software package on her computer to create a number of abstract images. She finds that each person who looks at the images sees something different in them. If Bess records the responses that each person provides, she may find the answers are similar to those that would be obtained using the
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Rorschach test.
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Which of the following is one of the major criticisms of the humanistic approach to personality?
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It is too optimistic about human nature
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The humanistic perspective’s emphasis on man’s potential for personal growth is MOST similar to which other personality theorist’s belief concerning man’s primary motivation?
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Alfred Adler
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Which of the following is NOT one of the major contributions associated with the humanistic theory of personality?
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Acknowledging the role that internal conflict plays in generating psychological distress
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Observational learning suggests that some models are more likely to be imitated than others. Which of the following characteristics of a model would be LEAST likely to result in a child’s imitating the model’s behavior?
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The model is of the opposite sex
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Which theorist argues that people have a strong need for affection, love, and acceptance from others?
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Carl Rogers
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Which of the following criticisms can be leveled against BOTH the psychoanalytic approach and the humanistic approach to personality?
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Poor testability
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According to Jung, one’s personal unconscious contains
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repressed or forgotten information.
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Finding ways to meet instinctual needs and still take into account the conditions of the external, social world defines the ____, the basic operating theme of the ____.
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reality principle; ego
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Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward psychologically, a phenomenon that Freud called
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fixation.
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Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a self-actualizing person?
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Having a strong need to affiliate with many people
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According to Carl Rogers, when parents make their affection unconditional and show acceptance of their children’s behavior, they are promoting
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congruence between their children’s self-concept and their actual experiences.
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According to Hans Eysenck, personality is largely
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inherited.
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According to Maslow’s theory, the self-actualizing person would be LEAST likely to
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be uncomfortable when alone or detached
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One of the major points Mischel makes about personality is that
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people are much less consistent across situations than most theorists have assumed
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Carmen has always done well in her math courses and even though she has never taken a statistics class before, she is confident she will do well in the one she just signed up for next semester. In this example, Carmen shows evidence of having
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high self-efficacy in math.
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According to the Featured Study, there is often a discrepancy between
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what people say and think.
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According to Jung, the ____ is a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past.
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collective unconscious
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If she is using the defense mechanisms of reaction formation, a mother who actually hates her son would MOST likely be both unaware of her hatred and
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act in an extremely loving way toward her son.
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Jose is one of the top baseball players in his league, but last week, he struck out on an easy pitch. When this happened, he smashed the water cooler in the dugout with his bat. According to Freud, Jose may be unconsciously dealing with his anger at himself by using the defense mechanism of
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displacement.
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Which of the following personality theorists did NOT emphasize the influence of childhood experiences on adult personality
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Abraham Maslow
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Bess uses a software package on her computer to create a number of abstract images. She finds that each person who looks at the images sees something different in them. If Bess records the responses that each person provides, she may find the answers are similar to those that would be obtained using the
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Rorschach test.
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Which theorist argues that people have a strong need for affection, love, and acceptance from others?
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Carl Rogers
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The Freudian period that begins with puberty is the
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genital stage.
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In an emergency, we would all react differently from one another because we all have different personalities and experiences. This quality of personality is called
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distinctiveness.
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Imagine a neighborhood in which a hurricane has caused extensive flooding. Many of the residents have had their homes damaged or destroyed. At the time, however, the material loss is unimportant as the residents think only of escaping the flood. Maslow would say this is because the residents’ ____ needs are threatened.
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safety and security
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According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ____ tend to be diligent, disciplined, well organized, and punctual.
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conscientiousness
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Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of narcissism?
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A strong need to forge bonds with others
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Evidence suggest that people high in openness to experience tend to
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exhibit less prejudice than others.
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Ten-year-old Benjamin is often nervous about bringing report cards home to his parents. Although his parents say they love him, he feels that they only really love him when he obtains excellent grades in school. Based on the theory developed by Carl Rogers, Benjamin perceives his parents’ affection as
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conditional, and he is likely to develop incongruence in his self-concept.
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The occurrence of so-called copycat crimes where someone hijacks an airliner after seeing a movie about a hijacking provides anecdotal evidence for
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Bandura’s social-cognitive theory
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The American cultural conception of self results in children
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developing an independent view of the self and defining themselves in terms of personal attributes
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According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ____ are characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, and assertive
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extraversion
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Research on national character using the Big Five personality traits found that
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subjects displayed considerable agreement concerning what was typical of their culture.
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Beatrix is planning a research study for her doctoral dissertation. As part of the study, she wants to measure normal aspects of personality in each of the participants, using a measure that is objective and precise. The BEST measure for Beatrix to use would be the
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NEO Personality Inventory.
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When people give a false but plausible excuse to justify their unacceptable behavior, they are using
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rationalization.
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Five-year-old Samuel often tells his older sister, \”I can’t wait to grow up, so I can marry mommy.\” Samuel is most likely in the stage of personality development that Freud referred to as the
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phallic stage.
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Cross-cultural research suggests that the Big Five personality traits
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are fairly consistent across cultures.
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Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the five-factor model of personality?
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It overemphasizes the role of unconscious motivation in personality
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Jason just sat down to work on his term paper when his friends called and invited him to a party. If Jason decides he will only go to the party after he finishes outlining the term paper, his decision reflects the functioning of his
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ego.
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John worries about his tendency toward abusing animals, so he joins the Association for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. John’s behavior can be viewed as an example of
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reaction formation.
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Evolutionary theorists have recently proposed a revision of Maslow’s theory to emphasize
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reproduction needs
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Under stress, a college student cries and throws things. The behavior of the student is an example of
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regression.
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The personality inventory developed by Raymond Cattell that describes an individual in terms of a limited number of personality source traits is the
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16 Personality Factor Questionnaire.
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Jalen is currently thinking about all the things she has to do before she goes to her first class. She is mentally making lists of all these things so she will remember to do them on her way to school. According to Freud, these thoughts are contained in Jalen’s
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conscious mind
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According to Hans Eysenck, ____ involves being egocentric, impulsive, cold, and antisocial
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psychoticism
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Freud used the term \”sexual\” in his psychosexual stages of development to mean
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any pleasure-giving urge.
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Martin sees himself primarily as part of a group, and he puts the group’s needs ahead of his own goals. It is most likely that Martin is from a(n)
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collectivistic culture.
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Unconscious fixations and unresolved conflicts are to Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality as ____ to B. F. Skinner’s theory.
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faulty learning is
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Behavioral genetics, the evolutionary approach, and Eysenck’s theory all approach the study of personality from the
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biological perspective.
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Adler is to individual psychology as Jung is to
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analytical psychology
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Observational learning suggests that some models are more likely to be imitated than others. Which of the following characteristics of a model would be LEAST likely to result in a child’s imitating the model’s behavior?
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The model is of the opposite sex
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How, according to terror management theory, does culture solve the existential crisis created by awareness of death?
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It gives members a sense of being part of a enduring legacy by creating stories and traditions
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Which of the following traits is MOST likely to be associated with high levels of productivity in a job setting?
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Conscientiousness
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Julio is extremely dependable and productive, and his friends think he is great at organizing events. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Julio would probably score
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high in conscientiousness.
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The id is
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the primitive, instinctive component of personality.
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The idea that a male child desires his mother and fears his father illustrates the
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Oedipal complex.
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The occurrence of so-called copycat crimes where someone hijacks an airliner after seeing a movie about a hijacking provides anecdotal evidence for
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Bandura’s social-cognitive theory.
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Nikolas is a nonconformist who is daring and likes to try new things. He is extremely imaginative and has a wide range of interests. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Nikolas would probably score
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high in openness.
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Studies linking personality traits with specific genes have been difficult to replicate because
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traits may be influenced by many genes.
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_____________ is a personality trait marked by an inflated sense of self-worth and a tendency to exploit other people.
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Narcissism
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You are in a debate with a friend who argues that people’s behavior is much less consistent across situations than most theorists assumed. Whose theory of personality is your friend’s argument MOST similar to?
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Walter Mischel
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While at the dentist, six-year-old Alex listens as his mom tells the dentist she flosses her teeth at least three times a week. Alex notices that the dentist smiled at and complimented his mom on her behavior. As a result of this brief encounter, Alex’s mom will be likely to continue to floss as a result of ____, and Alex will be likely to have a favorable attitude concerning flossing as a result of ____.
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operant conditioning; observational learning
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The \”typical\” subject in Milgram’s study experienced ____ psychological distress ____ to administer stronger electric shocks.
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considerable; but continued
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The rule that we should pay back in kind what we receive from others is known as the
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reciprocity norm.
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Which influence technique involves asking for a small request in order to increase the likelihood of the target complying with a larger request later?
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Foot in the door
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Inferences that people draw about the causes of events and theirs and others’ behaviors are known as
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attributions.
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Kevin is the Human Resources manager for a large company. He actually has a favorable attitude toward the handicapped in general. However, he hasn’t hired anyone who has a visible disability because his boss told him not to consider applicants who are handicapped. In this case, Kevin
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shows evidence of discrimination but not prejudice
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The results of Burger’s recent replication of Milgram’s obedience study suggest that
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people’s tendency to obey has remained about the same since Milgram’s study.
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Research on physical attractiveness has shown that
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we tend to ascribe desirable personality characteristics to good-looking people
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Which of the following is NOT a necessary component for describing or defining a group?
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Members of a group are cohesive
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You are likely to attribute your own failing grade on a test to ____; your roommate is more likely to attribute your failing grade to ____.
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an unfair test; your poor study habits
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Research has revealed higher levels of conformity in
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collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures.
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The beliefs people have concerning the object of an attitude describes the ____ component of an attitude.
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cognitive
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Compared with attractive people, less attractive people
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place less emphasis on the importance of physical attractiveness.
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Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes is referred to as
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individualism
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When advertisers use extremely attractive models to demonstrate products, they are relying, in part, on the power of ____ to change consumers’ attitudes.
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classical conditioning
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Marsha believes that all news reporters are cynical, doubting individuals who would sell their souls for an exclusive story. In this case, Marsha’s beliefs about the traits and behaviors of news reporters are one example of
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stereotypes.
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Evolutionary psychologists ascribe much of the bias in person perception to cognitive mechanisms that have been shaped by
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natural selection.
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According to Hazan and Shaver’s model of infant attachment and romantic love, adults with which of the following attachment styles are most likely to engage in casual sex?
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Avoidant
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In the research on romantic attraction, which of the following did researchers discover to be the key determinant of a person’s initial attraction to someone else?
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Physical attractiveness
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Research indicates that when women are approaching ovulation, they prefer men who are
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masculine and dominant.
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William always does what his friends want to do because he is afraid of being criticized if he does not conform. William appears to be conforming because of
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normative influences
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Harboring negative thoughts and feelings about a person simply because of his or her membership in a particular group defines
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prejudice.
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Asch’s \”line study\” clearly demonstrated that people ____ alter their behavior so that it conforms to the behavior of others.
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frequently
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Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on obedience to authority?
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Stanley Milgram
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While at the dentist, six-year-old Alex listens as his mom tells the dentist she flosses her teeth at least three times a week. Alex notices that the dentist smiled at and complimented his mom on her behavior. As a result of this brief encounter, Alex’s mom will be likely to continue to floss as a result of ____, and Alex will be likely to have a favorable attitude concerning flossing as a result of ____.
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operant conditioning; observational learning
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John observed Gracie, an executive for a large accounting firm, behave in an aggressive and pushy manner with her subordinates. John now believes that most women executives are aggressive and pushy with their subordinates. John’s overestimation of the link between women executives and the social traits of \”pushy\” and \”aggressive\” is referred to as
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an illusory correlation.
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Most research on implicit attitudes has addressed the topic of
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prejudice.
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Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on conformity?
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Solomon Asch
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Milgram found that subjects’ obedience declined dramatically when
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another \”teacher\” defied the experimenter’s order.
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When Stoner (1961) compared the average decision of a group’s individual members against their group decision generated through group discussion, he found that
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groups arrived at riskier decisions than individuals.
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According to dissonance theory, how do people usually reduce dissonance?
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By changing their cognitions
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What is the main reason we tend to make attributions about the causes of events, others’ behavior, and our own behavior?
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We have a strong need to understand our experiences.
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Rita believes that racial prejudice is wrong, but she also possesses subtle negative views about other races. Rita’s negative views make up her
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implicit attitudes.
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A group that one does NOT belong to or identify with is known as
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an outgroup
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Individuals’ productivity typically ____ in larger groups, partly due to ____.
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declines; reduced efficiency due to the loss of coordination among group members’ efforts
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Groups seeking donations routinely send address labels and other small gifts with their pleas. This approach illustrates which of the following social influence techniques?
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Reciprocity norm
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Sally and Neil have been married for 15 years. They have an extremely warm and trusting relationship, and even though Neil frequently travels on business, Sally never worries about him seeing other women. According to Hatfield and Berscheid, Sally and Neil share
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companionate love
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Celine just heard that her neighbor, Rodney, was involved in an automobile accident. If Celine concludes that Rodney’s children distracted him for a few seconds and that was the reason for the accident, she has
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made an external attribution.
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Preoccupation with rejection is to ____ attachment as relationships lacking intimacy and trust is to ____ attachment.
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anxious-ambivalent; avoidant
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Asch found that group size made little difference on conformity when
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just one accomplice failed to go along with the rest of the group
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The subfield of psychology that studies attitudes, the attribution process, person perceptions, interpersonal attraction, conformity and obedience, and group behavior is known as
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social psychology.
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Which of the following individuals is noted for developing the theory of cognitive dissonance?
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Leon Festinger
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Which of the following is NOT a major characteristic of successful persuasive communications that involve fear appeals? The negative consequences described
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are associated with one’s physical health.
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The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency of
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observers to favor internal attributions in explaining the behavior of others
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Edith is making a class presentation in which she is trying to convince the other students that a proposed change in the requirements for a degree in education will be beneficial in the long run. Based on the research into factors that influence persuasion, Edith will be MOST persuasive if she
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presents both the advantages and disadvantages associated with the proposed change.
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Which of the following statements regarding the influence of culture on conformity and obedience is MOST accurate?
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Collectivistic cultures tend to encourage more conformity than individualistic cultures.
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According to evolutionary psychologists, which of the following characteristics in a prospective mate would be the LEAST important consideration for a woman seeking a mate?
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Physical attractiveness
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John observed Gracie, an executive for a large accounting firm, behave in an aggressive and pushy manner with her subordinates. John now believes that most women executives are aggressive and pushy with their subordinates. John’s overestimation of the link between women executives and the social traits of \”pushy\” and \”aggressive\” is referred to as
answer

an illusory correlation.
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According to evolutionary theorists, which of the following factors is likely to be the MOST important for a male seeking a prospective mate?
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Physical attractiveness
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Most research on implicit attitudes has addressed the topic of
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prejudice.
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Laura is planning to buy a new car and is trying to decide between a Ford and a Honda. Based on the research into factors that influence persuasion, Laura should be MOST persuaded by statements made by
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a Ford salesperson who recommends buying a Honda rather than a Ford.
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Which of the following statements BEST reflects an evolutionary explanation of why we tend to be influenced by physical attractiveness in our perception of others?
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At one time in our history, physical attractiveness was associated with reproductive potential
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A small public relations firm has four employees who are all opposed to the death penalty (anti-death penalty). Which employee would be MOST likely to change his attitude concerning the death penalty?
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Clark, who writes a brief pro-death penalty piece as a favor for a friend
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Which of the following dimensions of attitudes are MOST likely to be correlated?
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Accessibility and strength
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According to the elaboration likelihood model of attitude change, when persuasion depends on factors such as the attractiveness and credibility of the source or emotional responses by the receiver, it is referred to as the
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peripheral route.
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The bystander effect is the finding that
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the probability that a witness to an emergency will help decreases as the number of bystanders increases.
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Frequently, companies use professionals such as doctors and dentists to recommend products in advertisements since professionals are MOST likely to be perceived as having
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expertise.
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Prejudice is to discrimination as
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attitude is to action.
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If Matthew’s mother praises his \”good sense\” every time he says that money is important, then Matthew’s attitude will be strengthened by
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reinforcement.
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Celine just heard that her neighbor, Rodney, was involved in an automobile accident. If Celine concludes that Rodney’s children distracted him for a few seconds and that was the reason for the accident, she has
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made an external attribution.
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Kirstie’s boss asks for input about ways the company can improve its current advertising campaign. However, every time an employee offers a suggestion that differs from the plan that the boss has sketched out, the suggestion is ignored completely. In this case, it is likely that the group that is supposed to improve the company’s advertising will experience the effects of
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groupthink
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Mary just completed a test that required her to respond as quickly as possible to faces of people from various races. The test that Mary took is called the
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Reactive Bias Test.
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Matthew often hears his parents discussing the importance of making lots of money. Eventually, Matthew himself begins to value a high income. Matthew’s attitude about money was acquired through
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observational learning.
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Advertisements that include phrases like \”limited supply available\” or \”for a limited time only\” are making use of which of the following social influence techniques?
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Feigned scarcity
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Which of the following factors is NOT one that influences a person’s initial attraction to someone else?
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Attributional style
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The branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others is
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social psychology.
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Maya has always preferred individual assignments to group projects because she finds that she can accomplish more when she works on her own. The process that would best explain why Maya accomplishes LESS when she works as part of a group is
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social loafing.
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Milgram found that subjects’ obedience declined dramatically when
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another \”teacher\” defied the experimenter’s order.
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Adults who experience love relationships that are volatile, marked by jealousy, and reflect expectations of rejection exhibit
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anxious-ambivalent attachment.
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In Milgram’s research on obedience, what did the experimenter do to the teacher when the teacher questioned whether the experiment should continue?
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The teacher was given verbal prompts to continue.
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Observers tend to favor ____ attributions about the success of males; observers tend to favor ____ attributions about the success of females.
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internal; external
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Attitudes that we hold consciously and can easily describe to others are known as __________ attitudes.
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explicit
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Which of the following is NOT characteristic of groupthink?
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Gathering all the relevant information before making a decision
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When the behavior of all subjects was combined, Asch’s study of conformity found that subjects exhibited conformity on approximately ____ of the trials.
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35-40%
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Findings from recent studies suggest that people adjust their tactics of attraction as a function of which of the following?
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Whether they are pursuing a short- or long-term relationship
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Research on factors contributing to building relationships seems to SUPPORT the adage
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\”similarity breeds liking.\”
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In the Stanford Prison study, the \”guards\” routinely
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became malicious and abusive in fulfilling their responsibilities.
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Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning attitudes?
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People are more likely to be attracted to someone with similar attitudes.
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Attribution refers to
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inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior and the behavior of others.
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Social loafing is MORE likely to occur if the
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group members feel that the responsibility for getting the job done is diffused among the members of the group.
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You have just come face to face with a bear on your walk through the woods. Your body automatically mobilizes itself for action in the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
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alarm
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Current research suggests it is MOST accurate to view the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) as assessing
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changes that relate to a wide variety of stressful experiences.
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Allie has a chronic medical condition. She was advised to take a drug from a manufacturer that claims it reduces the risk of mortality from her condition by 25%. Before taking the drug, it is MOST important that Allie investigate
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the base rate for mortality from her condition.
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Neurogenisis
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can be hindered by stress.
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Your text outlines a number of ways in which people can think more systematically about health decisions. Which of the following is NOT one of the suggestions outlined in your text?
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Delay making a final decision until you have the opportunity to consult with professionals in the field
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One personality characteristic correlated with good physical health is
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conscientiousness.
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Emily is an excellent student. She puts in long hours on her schoolwork and often gets the top mark in the class. However, she is always relaxed and seems fairly easygoing. She does her schoolwork as it is assigned and doesn’t put herself under pressure by leaving things to the last minute. She is also always willing to take the time to patiently explain difficult material to other students in her classes. Emily would MOST likely be described as having
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a Type B personality
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The Flashback football team was down by 35 points at half-time, but they made a big comeback in the second half. With less than 15 seconds remaining on the clock, they scored a touchdown that narrowed the other team’s lead to a single point. Their quarterback has decided to try for a two-point conversion in an attempt to win the game by a single point in the final seconds. As the team lines up for the last play of the game, both the quarterback and the intended receiver are likely to be experiencing
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pressure.
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Roommates Ann and Margaret both woke up yesterday with a headache, upset stomach, and muscle stiffness. While Ann was showering for her 9:00 art history class, Margaret rushed off to the college health clinic. MOST likely Margaret exhibits a ____ than Ann.
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higher level of anxiety and higher level of neuroticism
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The principle cause of coronary heart disease is
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atherosclerosis.
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According to Lazarus and Folkman, we evaluate our coping resources during
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secondary appraisal
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Circumstances that threaten, or are perceived to threaten, one’s well-being and tax one’s coping abilities define
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stress.
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Webb’s teacher has told him that there is really no way for him to earn a passing grade in his statistics class, even if he earns 100% on all the work that remains. However, Webb has convinced himself that he will still pass the course if he just works really hard for the rest of the semester. In this instance, Webb may be dealing with the stress-induced anxiety aroused by the teacher’s comments through the use of
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denial of reality.
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Americans tend to prefer _________ social support, while Asians tend to prefer ________ social support.
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explicit; implicit
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The term \”psychosomatic disease\” is used to refer to
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genuine physical illness caused at least partly by psychological factors
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Mary and John are teaming up to make an important sales presentation to 15 executives from a Fortune 500 company. Mary finds the challenge exhilarating, but John is a nervous wreck over the presentation. Their differing reactions illustrate which of your text’s unifying themes?
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Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
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Miranda started a small craft business in her home three years ago. Last year, she finally moved her business into a small store along her town’s main street. Last Saturday, most of her store’s stock was destroyed as firefighters fought a fire that had started in the vacant office next to her store. As Miranda walks through her ruined store, she is MOST likely to experience a sense of
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frustration.
question

Harry is an excellent basketball player who seldom misses a shot during practice. After yesterday’s practice, Harry’s coach told him that some scouts from a big college would be at today’s practice. Based on the research by Baumeister, it is likely that this increase in pressure will make Harry
answer

more self-conscious and will interfere with his performance.
question

The Featured Study by Pennix and colleagues showed that depression tripled the subjects’ risk for cardiac death. This finding indicates that illness and levels of stress are
answer

positively correlated
question

The optimal level of arousal for task performance
answer

decreases as the tasks become more complex
question

Analyzing the possible gains and losses before undertaking a health-treatment program is an example of
answer

making a risk-benefit analysis.
question

Which of the following is NOT a reason given to explain why people engage in unhealthy behaviors?
answer

People are often unaware of the of the dangers associated with their health-impairing behaviors
question

Valerie is doing homework for her statistics class. When she checks the answer she has just calculated for the problem she has been working on, she finds it is incorrect. She is frustrated and tells her roommate, \”I don’t know why I’m even trying, I’ll never catch on in this course. I should just give up now.\” According to Albert Ellis, Valerie’s statements reflect
answer

catastrophic thinking
question

The Flashback football team was down by 35 points at half-time, but they made a big comeback in the second half. With less than 15 seconds remaining on the clock, they scored a touchdown that narrowed the other team’s lead to a single point. Their quarterback has decided to try for a two-point conversion in an attempt to win the game by a single point in the final seconds. As the team lines up for the last play of the game, both the quarterback and the intended receiver are likely to be experiencing
answer

pressure.
question

What area of psychology is concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness?
answer

Health psychology
question

The negative effects of ____________ may be more severe than the negative effects of obesity, lack of exercise, and excessive drinking.
answer

inadequate social support
question

Thelma goes to a nightclub and flirts with dozens of men whenever she feels neglected and ignored by her husband. In this example, Freud would suggest that Thelma is dealing with the stress generated by her feelings of neglect through
answer

overcompensation
question

Rick imagines he is secretly admired by women who all wish he would seduce them. Rick, who is socially inept, is using the defense mechanism of
answer

fantasy.
question

Which of the following statements regarding the connection between social support and immune functioning is MOST accurate?
answer

Social support can serve as a buffer in times of high stress.
question

Which of the following is NOT included in the definition of stress? Stress includes circumstances that
answer

are traumatic
question

Research suggests that the stress responses of _______ tend to be milder than those without this characteristic.
answer

females
question

Rosemary recently married her high school sweetheart and they moved into a wonderful new condominium. A week after the move, Rosemary was offered a job that she had been hoping she would get. At this point in time, Rosemary can’t imagine being any happier. According to Holmes and Rahe, Rosemary is likely to be experiencing
answer

a high level of stress.
question

Melissa has an old car that is desperately in need of expensive repairs. She is trying to decide whether to spend the $1,500 she has in her savings account to repair her old clunker or use her savings to buy the used car that her neighbor has for sale. As Melissa considers which of these two options she will select, she is facing
answer

an avoidance-avoidance conflict
question

When a choice must be made between two unattractive goals, we are said to be experiencing
answer

an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
question

When the adrenal medulla is stimulated
answer

large amounts of catecholamines are released into the bloodstream
question

The hormones secreted into the bloodstream during times of stress are
answer

catecholamines and corticosteroids.
question

Current research suggests it is MOST accurate to view the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) as assessing
answer

changes that relate to a wide variety of stressful experiences.
question

Your friend asks you for advice as to how he can improve his communication with his healthcare provider. Which of the following would you NOT offer him?
answer

Consult a healthcare provider who is not of your same sex
question

Health-impairing lifestyles appear to develop
answer

slowly.
question

Research MOST strongly suggests that people who have been betrayed by someone will experience improved mood if they
answer

forgive the betrayer.
question

The principle cause of coronary heart disease is
answer

atherosclerosis.
question

The Featured Study by Pennix and colleagues showed that depression tripled the subjects’ risk for cardiac death. This finding indicates that illness and levels of stress are
answer

positively correlated.
question

Miranda started a small craft business in her home three years ago. Last year, she finally moved her business into a small store along her town’s main street. Last Saturday, most of her store’s stock was destroyed as firefighters fought a fire that had started in the vacant office next to her store. As Miranda walks through her ruined store, she is MOST likely to experience a sense of
answer

frustration.
question

Harry is an excellent basketball player who seldom misses a shot during practice. After yesterday’s practice, Harry’s coach told him that some scouts from a big college would be at today’s practice. Based on the research by Baumeister, it is likely that this increase in pressure will make Harry
answer

more self-conscious and will interfere with his performance.
question

The relationship between level of arousal and performance is described by the
answer

inverted-U hypothesis.
question

Relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events are referred to as
answer

constructive coping.
question

According to Baumeister, the pressure to perform can elevate self-consciousness, which then disrupts our attention by
answer

diverting attention from the demands of the task.
question

The two major pathways via which the brain may signal the endocrine system are through
answer

the pituitary gland and the autonomic nervous system.
question

Leonard has 15 years of seniority at a job with a small company where he gets along well with everyone. Recently, a competitor called to offer him a job that would pay more money, but where he would have to start over, with no seniority. As Leonard tries to decide whether to accept the new job because it offers more money or turn it down because it would mean giving up his seniority, he is facing
answer

an approach-avoidance conflict.
question

Stress effects appear to be moderated by the
answer

hypothalamus activating the sympathetic nervous system.
question

Mason is already late for an important appointment when he realizes he is almost out of gas. He stops to fill up, and the clerk has trouble getting approval on his credit card. When he finally pulls out of the service station, the traffic is crawling because of an accident. Inconveniences of this type
answer

can often have a significant effect on physical and mental health.
question

Your text outlines a number of ways in which people can think more systematically about health decisions. Which of the following is NOT one of the suggestions outlined in your text?
answer

Delay making a final decision until you have the opportunity to consult with professionals in the field
question

Americans tend to prefer _________ social support, while Asians tend to prefer ________ social support.
answer

explicit; implicit
question

Albert Ellis believes people can alter their ____ stress by altering their ____ stressful events.
answer

emotional response to; appraisal of
question

According to the original frustration-aggression hypothesis put forth by Dollard and his colleagues,
answer

aggression is always caused by frustration
question

Which of the following statements concerning positive emotions and stress is the LEAST accurate?
answer

Experiencing positive emotions while under stress is rare, and it is associated with denial in most individuals.
question

Dionne is trapped in an elevator that is stuck between the third and fourth floors of an office building. As maintenance workers try to restart the elevator, it suddenly drops 10 feet before becoming stuck once more. As the elevator drops, Dionne’s sympathetic nervous system is activated. This nervous system activation will cause
answer

the adrenal medulla to begin to release large amounts of catecholamines
question

Megan is looking at the ballot form for a citywide referendum and trying to decide whether or not to support the proposed change. If the referendum passes, there will be better services available for all city residents, but it will also mean that residents pay more property taxes. As Megan tries to decide whether to support the proposed referendum, she is facing
answer

an approach-avoidance conflict
question

Which of the following is an example of a stressful situation that involves frustration?
answer

You want to go to the big game tomorrow, but the game is sold out
question

In times of stress, stimulation of the pituitary gland results in the adrenal gland secreting hormones that tend to
answer

increase energy and inhibit tissue inflammation
question

An individuals unique set of consistent behavioral traits
answer

Personality
question

Durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
answer

Personality traits
question

correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables
answer

factor analysis
question

all the diverse theories, descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, that focus on unconscious mental forces.
answer

Psychodynamic theories
question

demands immediate gratification of its urges
answer

pleasure principle
question

decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle
answer

ego
question

seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
answer

reality principle
question

primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle
answer

id
question

the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
answer

superego
question

whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time
answer

conscious
question

material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved
answer

preconscious
question

thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
answer

unconscious
question

largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
answer

defense mechanisms
question

creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
answer

rationalization
question

keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
answer

repression
question

attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings or motives to another
answer

projection
question

diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute target
answer

displacement
question

behaving in a way that’s exactly the opposite of one’s true feelings
answer

reaction formation
question

reversion to immature patterns of behavior
answer

regression
question

bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group
answer

identification
question

occurs when unconscious, unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable, perhaps even admirable, behaviors
answer

sublimation
question

developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark in adult personality
answer

psychosexual stages
question

failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected
answer

fixation
question

children manifest erotically tinged desires for their opposite sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their same-sex parent
answer

Oedipal Complex
question

houses material that is not within one’s conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten
answer

personal unconscious
question

a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past
answer

collective unconscious
question

emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
answer

archetypes
question

universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life’s challenges
answer

striving for superiority
question

involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities
answer

compensation
question

theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
answer

behaviorism
question

occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others who are called models
answer

observational learning
question

the idea that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another
answer

reciprocal determinism
question

a peson whose behavior is observed by another
answer

model
question

one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected out comes
answer

self-efficacy
question

a collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities and typical behaviors
answer

self concept
question

a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
answer

hierarchy of needs
question

the need to fulfill one’s potential
answer

need for self-actualization
question

people with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth
answer

self-actualizing persons
question

a personality trait marked by an inflated sense of importance, a need for attention and admiration, a sense of entitlement and a tendency to exploit others
answer

narcissism
question

the degree to which subjects mortality is prominent in their minds
answer

mortality salience
question

putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships
answer

individualism
question

putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups one belongs to
answer

collectivism
question

focusing on positive feedback from others, exaggerating one’s strengths, and seeing oneself as above average
answer

self-enhancement
question

personality tests that ask individuals to answer questions about their characteristic behavior
answer

self-report inventories
question

ask participants to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects’ needs feelings and personality traits
answer

projective tests
question

the tendency to mold one’s interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out
answer

hindsight bias
question

branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by others
answer

social psychology
question

process of forming impressions of others
answer

person perception
question

widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular way
answer

stereotypes
question

when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen
answer

illusory correlation
question

a group that one belongs to and identifies with
answer

in group
question

a group that one does not belong to or identify with
answer

out group
question

ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings
answer

internal attributions
question

ascrive the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints
answer

external attributions
question

observers’ bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others’ behavior
answer

fundamental attribution
question

tendency to blame victims of their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way
answer

defensive attribution
question

putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships
answer

individualism
question

positive feelings toward another
answer

interpersonal attraction
question

males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners
answer

matching hypothesis
question

a complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion
answer

passionate love
question

warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own
answer

companionate love
question

positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought
answer

attitudes
question

attitudes that we hold consciously and can readily describe
answer

explicit attitudes
question

covert attitudes that are expressed in subtle automatic responses that people have little conscious control over
answer

implicit attitudes
question

the person who sends a communication
answer

the source
question

the person to whom the message is sent
answer

receiver
question

the information transmitted by the source
answer

message
question

is the medium through which the message is sent
answer

channel
question

when related cognitions are inconsistent- that is, when they contradict each other
answer

cognitive dissonance
question

when people yield to real or imagined social pressure
answer

conformity
question

when people conform to social norms for fear of negative social consequences
answer

normative influence
question

operates when people look to others for guidance about how to behave in ambiguous situations
answer

informational influence
question

form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
answer

obedience
question

widely shared expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave
answer

social roles
question

consists of two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent
answer

a group
question

people are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone
answer

bystander effect
question

reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves
answer

social loafing
question

occurs when group discussion strengthens a group’s dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction
answer

group polarization
question

when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision
answer

groupthink
question

the strength of the relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself
answer

group cohesiveness
question

a negative attitude held toward members of a group
answer

prejudice
question

behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group
answer

discrimination
question

getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later
answer

foot-in-the-door
question

the rule that we should pay back in kind what we receive from others
answer

reciprocity norm
question

getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed
answer

lowball technique
question

physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors
answer

biopsychosocial model
question

concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention and treatment of illness
answer

health psychology
question

any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well being and that thereby tax one’s coping abilities
answer

stress
question

initial evaluation of whether an event is 1) irrelevant to you 2) relevant but not threatening or 3) stressful
answer

Primary appraisal
question

an evaluation of your coping resources and options are dealing with the stress
answer

secondary appraisal
question

threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint
answer

acute stressors
question

threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit
answer

chronic stressors
question

any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted
answer

frustration
question

when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression
answer

conflict
question

a choice must be made between two attractive goals
answer

approach-approach conflict
question

choice must be made between two unattractive goals
answer

avoidance-avoidance
question

choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects
answer

approach-avoidance
question

any significant alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustments
answer

life changes
question

involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way
answer

pressure
question

a physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking or fleeing an enemy
answer

fight or flight response
question

a model of the body’s stress response, consisting of three stages, alarm, resistance and exhaustion
answer

general adaptation syndrome
question

formation of new neurons
answer

neurogenesis
question

active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress
answer

coping
question

passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events
answer

learned helplessness
question

any behavior that is intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally
answer

aggression
question

spending an inordinate amount of time on the internet and inability to control online use
answer

internet addiction
question

largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
answer

defense mechanisms
question

relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events
answer

constructive coping
question

physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism and a lowered sense of self-efficacy that can be brought on gradually by chronic work-related stress
answer

burnout
question

successful adaptation to significant stress and trauma, as evidenced by a lack of serious negative outcomes
answer

resilience
question

genuine physical ailments that were thought to be caused in part by stress and other psychological factors
answer

psychosomatic diseases
question

1) a strong competitive orientation 2) impatience and time urgency and 3) anger and hostility
answer

Type A personality
question

marked by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing amicable behavior
answer

type b personality
question

the body’s defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other foreign substances
answer

immune response
question

various types of aid and emotional sustenance provided by members of one’s social networks
answer

social support
question

generalized tendency to consistently expect good outcomes
answer

optimism
question

a disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
answer

acquired immune deficiency
question

unrealistically pessimistic appraisals of stress that exaggerate the magnitude of ones problems
answer

catastrophic thinking
question

it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
answer

medical model
question

distinguishing one illness from another
answer

diagnosis
question

refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
answer

etiology
question

a forecast about the probable course of an illness
answer

prognosis
question

coexistence of two or more disorders
answer

comorbidity
question

the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
answer

epidemiology
question

the percentage of a population that exhibit a disorder during a specified time period
answer

prevalence
question

a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
answer

anxiety disorders
question

marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
answer

generalized anxiety disorder
question

marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger
answer

phobic disorder
question

characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly
answer

panic disorder
question

fear of going out to public places
answer

agoraphobia
question

marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts and urges to engage in senseless rituals
answer

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
question

enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event
answer

post-traumatic stress disorder
question

the percent age of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
answer

concordance rate
question

sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting
answer

dissociative amnesia
question

a class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity
answer

dissociative disorders
question

people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity
answer

dissociative fugue
question

involves the coexistence in one person or two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities
answer

dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)
question

a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical perceptual social and thought processes
answer

mood disorders
question

people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
answer

major depressive disorder
question

a diminished ability to experience pleasure
answer

anhedonia
question

characterized by the experience of one ore more manic episodes as well as periods of depression
answer

bipolar disorder
question

a class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and deterioration of adaptive behavior
answer

schizophrenic disorder
question

false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality
answer

delusions
question

sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input
answer

hallucinations
question

dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur
answer

paranoid schizophrenia
question

marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
answer

catatonic schizophrenia
question

marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms
answer

undifferentiated schizophrenia
question

behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal apathy impaired attention and poverty of speech
answer

negative symptoms
question

involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities such as hallucinations delusions bizarre behavior and wild flights of ideas
answer

positive symptoms
question

the degree to which a relative of a patient displays highly critical or emotionally over-involved attitudes toward the patient
answer

expressed emotions
question

a class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning
answer

personality disorders
question

impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms
answer

antisocial personality disorder
question

a legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for this or her actions because of mental illness
answer

insanity
question

people are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities against their will
answer

involuntary commitment
question

abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups
answer

culture-bound disorders
question

severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy efforts to control weight
answer

eating disorders
question

intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight and use of dangerous measures to lose weight
answer

anorexia nervosa
question

habitually engaging in out of control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts such as self induced vomiting, fasting, abuse or laxatives and diuretics, and excessive exercise
answer

bulimia nervosa
question

involves distress-inducing eating binges that are not accompanied by the purging, fating and excessive exercise seen in bulimia
answer

binge-eating disorder
question

basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
answer

representativeness heuristic
question

basing the estimated probability of an event on the case with which relevant instances come to mind
answer

availability heuristic
question

when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone
answer

conjunction fallacy
question

specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems
answer

clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists
question

physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
answer

psychiatrists
question

verbal interactions intended to enhance clients’ self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior
answer

insight therapies
question

an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts motives and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference
answer

psychoanalysis
question

clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible
answer

free association
question

therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client’s dream
answer

dream analysis
question

the therapist’s attempts to explain the inner significance of the client’s thoughts, feelings, memories and behaviors
answer

interpretation
question

largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
answer

resistance
question

clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives
answer

transference
question

an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy
answer

client-centered therapy
question

uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence
answer

positive psychology
question

the treatment of both partners in a committed intimate relationship in which the main focus is on relationship issues
answer

couples or marital therapy
question

the treatment of a family unit as a whole, in which the main focus is on family dynamics and communication
answer

family therapy
question

recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment
answer

spontaneous remission
question

the application of learning principles to direct efforts to change clients maladaptive behaviors
answer

behavior therapies
question

a behavior therapy used to reduce the phobic clients anxiety responses through counterconditioning
answer

systematic desensitization
question

clients are confronted with situations that they fear so that they learn that these situations are really harmless
answer

exposure therapies
question

behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response
answer

aversion therapy
question

a behavior therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal and shaping
answer

social skills training
question

use varied combinations of verbal interventions and behavior modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive patterns of thinking
answer

cognitive-behavioral treatments
question

uses specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders
answer

cognitive therapy
question

physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders
answer

biomedical therapies
question

treatment of mental disorders with medication
answer

psychopharmacotherapy
question

relieve tension, apprehension and nervousness
answer

antianxiety drugs
question

used to gradually reduce psychotic symptoms, including hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations and delusions
answer

antipsychotic drugs
question

neurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and ticlike movements of the mouth, tongue face hands or feet
answer

tardive dyskinesia
question

gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of a depression
answer

antidepressant drugs
question

drugs used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorders
answer

mood stabilizers
question

biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions
answer

Electroconvulsive therapy
question

technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain
answer

transcranial magnetic stimulation
question

a thin electrode is surgically implanted in the brain and connected to an implanted pulse generator so that various electrical current can be delivered to brain tissue adjacent to the electrode
answer

deep brain stimulations (DBS)
question

the practice of therapy involves drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one system
answer

eclecticism
question

a medical institution specializing in providing inpatient care for psychological disorders
answer

mental hospital
question

transferring the treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community-based facilities that emphasize outpatient care
answer

deintstitutionalization
question

effects occur when people expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive a fake treatment
answer

placebo effect
question

when people who score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time and their new scores fall closer to the mean
answer

regression toward the mean
question

Seligman found that people with a pessimistic explanatory style are especially vulnerable to depression. These individuals tend to attribute their setbacks to ____ and draw ____ conclusions about their personal inadequacies.
answer

personal flaws; global, far-reaching
question

Paxton comes from a home where discipline was erratic, and he was physically abused by his parents. His parents were also self-centered and exploitive. Based on research, this home environment is likely to increase Paxton’s risk for developing
answer

antisocial personality disorder.
question

According to the medical model
answer

abnormal behavior can be thought of as a disease.
question

Who would be MOST likely to worry about driving home from work while it is snowing because he recalls \”the last time I drove home in the snow, I skidded and almost had an accident?\”
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Alan, who has an anxiety disorder
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Killian lets her husband keep all the financial records for the family, and she expects him to make all the decisions that affect them. She refuses to make any decisions on her own, and if anything unexpected occurs, she calls her husband at work to ask for his advice. If Killian has a personality disorder, her symptoms are MOST consistent with those associated with disorders in the
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anxious/fearful cluster.
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The class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity, is known as
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dissociative disorders
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Due to the representiveness heuristic, many people underestimate the prevalence of psychological disorders since prototypical disorders are
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relatively minor and rare.
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A college student faced with upcoming exams and term papers responds to his resulting feelings of anxiety by reorganizing his notes, rearranging his bookshelves, cleaning out his desk drawer, and straightening up his closet. He would be showing symptoms of
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obsessive-compulsive disorder.
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A concordance rate indicates
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the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder.
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Which of the following is a common stereotype about psychological disorders?
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People with psychological disorders are violent and dangerous.
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Disorders that are marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that affect one’s physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes are referred to as
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mood disorders.
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Earlier age of onset of depression is associated with
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greater comorbidity.
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The association between stress and mood disorders is inconsistent, but it is clear that
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stress affects the likelihood of relapse.
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Mario has just entered treatment for a major depressive episode. He is told that most patients respond to treatment within a month and many never experience a second depressive episode. This information represents
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a prognosis.
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Alexia started a new job on Monday morning. For the first three days, she showed up in bright colors and was outgoing and extroverted. However, on Thursday, she showed up in a dark suit and appeared shy and introverted. She insisted that her name was Clara, and she couldn’t understand why her coworkers kept calling her Alexia. In this example, Alexia is showing symptoms that are consistent with
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dissociative identity disorder.
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Mark is hospitalized as a result of schizophrenia. He constantly rambles incoherently about a variety of topics and does not interact with the other patients or hospital staff. Mark has delusions that his right arm is slowly shrinking and that he is growing a third eye on the back of his head. MOST likely, Mark is diagnosed with
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disorganized schizophrenia
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Jeffrey Dahmer was judged to be legally sane, even though he admitted to butchering, cannibalizing, and then having sex with the dead bodies of over a dozen young men. The judgment of legal sanity meant that
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he was able to appreciate the fact that his actions were legally or morally wrong at the time of the crime.
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In regard to psychological disorders, prevalence refers to
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the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period.
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Melissa has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. If Melissa were to complete a personality assessment, it is likely that her personality profile would list her as
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obsessive, rigid, and emotionally restrained.
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A type of dissociative disorder characterized by sudden loss of memory concerning a limited period of time, usually after a particularly stressful or traumatic event, is
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dissociative amnesia.

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