Psych 111 – Exam 2, Chapter 9 Practice Questions

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Hydrocephaly may lead to mental retardation because of
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a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid that destroys brain tissue.
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Which of the following is an expression of the nurture side of the nature versus nurture argument?
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An intellectually stimulating environment can lead to noticeable increases in the IQs of disadvantaged children.
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Jeremy is very sensitive to sounds, rhythms, the meaning of words, and the different functions of language. According to Gardner, Jeremy has a high level of
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linguistic intelligence.
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Which of the following represents the strongest test-retest reliability for a test?
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+0.90
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____ tests measure general mental ability, and ____ tests measure various aspects of people including motives, interests, values, and attitudes.
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Intelligence; personality
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The man responsible for developing the first intelligence tests designed to predict the school performance of children was
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Alfred Binet
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Data from the standardization samples for the Standford-Binet and Wechsler scales suggest that since the 1970s, the gap in IQ scores between African Americans and Caucasians has
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shrunk by about 4 to 7 points.
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Jamie is a 23-year-old female who only completed the third grade. She is employed in a sheltered workshop and has a difficult time with mild stress. Jamie is MOST likely
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moderately mentally retarded.
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In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray imply all of the following EXCEPT
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the heritability of intelligence is very low.
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Leo wants to become a fighter pilot, and he is asked to complete a test that is designed to determine if he has the interests and the values typically found in fighter pilots. In this example, the test that Leo is asked to complete would be classified as
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a personality test
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A symmetrical bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics, including intelligence, are distributed is the
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normal distribution
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If a psychological test does, in fact, measure what it was designed to measure, the test has
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validity
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According to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, someone who is able to cope well with new or novel tasks should score high in
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creative intelligence
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Gunnar is 50 years old and only completed the sixth grade when he was in school. For the past 30 years, Gunnar has been a successful fisherman who has five fishing boats. Recently, he took part in an aging study conducted by a university near his home and was told that his IQ score was only 65. Based on the definition for mental retardation provided by the American Association on Mental Retardation, Gunnar
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does not meet the definition because he does not show deficits in daily living skills.
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Jamal recently completed an intelligence test and was told that his IQ score was 135. Based on the standard practices in most school districts, Jamal would
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be considered gifted and would be eligible for gifted programs.
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Contemporary IQ tests characterize intelligence as
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consisting of 10-15 primary abilities.
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Which of the following is NOT included in the definition of mental retardation?
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Caused by an organic condition
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Interested in learning how to fly airplanes, Roger has just taken a test designed to predict how well he is likely to do in a pilot training program. Roger has taken a(n)
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aptitude test
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The fact that the correlation in IQ scores between identical twins reared apart is higher than that between fraternal twins reared together suggests that intellectual development is
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influenced more by genetics than by environmental factors.
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According to your textbook, “intelligence” is BEST thought of as a
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reification
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According to Leon Kamin, ____ differences in IQ scores are most likely to be heritable, and ____ differences are most likely to be the result of environmental factors.
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within-groups; between-groups
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The two very broad categories of psychological tests are
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mental ability and personality tests
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The youngest age at which IQ scores are fairly good predictors of adult IQ is
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7-9 year olds
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Jelani was recently considered for enrollment in the gifted program at his school. The report says that Jelani is an extremely creative and talented child. Based on the standard practices in most school districts, Jelani would
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not meet the criterion for giftedness unless he also scored above 130 on an IQ test.
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Based on the research performed on eminent professionals who attain exceptional achievement, you would NOT expect someone receiving the Nobel Prize to say,
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“My success is a demonstration of the ease with which innate talent wins out.”
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Adoption studies provide support for the influence of
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both environmental and genetic factors on intelligence.
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What form of mental illness frequently has been found to be associated with outstanding creativity?
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Mood disorders
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The IQ scores of children raised in substandard environments tend
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to decrease as the child gets older.
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The term used to refer to genetically determined limits on IQ is
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reaction range.
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If you wanted to gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge in a specific area, such as mathematics, you would need to administer
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an achievement test.
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If your score falls at the 75th percentile on a standardized test, which of the following is an accurate interpretation?
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75% of the people who took the test scored at or below your score.
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The average IQ for many of the larger minority groups in the United States (such as African American, Native American, Hispanic) ranges from ____ points lower than the average IQ of Caucasians.
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10 to 15
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The average correlation between IQ score and brain volume is approximately
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+.35
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Davis is a gifted violinist who has been playing the violin since he was two. He started writing his own music when he was four. However, Davis has a difficult time expressing himself with words, and he struggles with all his written assignments for his classes at school. The theory of intelligence that could BEST be used to account for Davis’s different levels of performance in these areas is
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Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences.
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Todd has very strong reasoning ability and is able to process information very quickly. It is clear that Todd is high in
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fluid intelligence
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Which of the following traits has NOT been linked to creativity?
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submissive
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Adoption studies comparing the intelligence of adopted children to their ____ provides support for the role of genetic factors in intelligence.
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biological parents
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The fact that adopted children resemble their biological parents in intelligence, even though they were not reared by those parents, suggests that intellectual development is
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influenced more by genetics than by environmental factors.
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Francis has applied for admission to a computer science program, and one of the requirements for admission is the completion of a test that measures sequencing skills and abstract reasoning skills. Her score on this test will be a major factor in the decision about whether to admit her to the program. In this case, the test that Francis is scheduled to take would be classified as
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an aptitude test
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According to the text, people with high IQs are at lower risk for all of the following health problems EXCEPT
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food poisoning
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The Featured Study concerning racial stereotypes and test performance found that when students believed a test measured general verbal ability, the performance of African-American students was
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significantly lower than the performance of Caucasian students.
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Which of the following six-year-old children would be MOST likely to experience an increase in their IQ over the next few years?
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Cathy, who was recently adopted from an understaffed orphanage by loving middle-class parents
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According to Howard Gardner, IQ tests have generally emphasized which of the following?
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Verbal and mathematical skills
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In which of the following countries are IQ tests LEAST likely to be used?
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China
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Which of the following statements is the MOST debatable?
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Genetic factors are strongly implicated as the cause of ethnic differences in intelligence.
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Which child would be MOST likely to have the highest upper limit of his or her reaction range for intelligence?
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A lower-class minority child with an IQ of 95
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Researchers who believe that IQ is largely genetic (such as Arthur Jensen) argue that the heritability of IQ is close to
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80%
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The fact that two people taking the same test in two different places will receive the same instructions, the same questions, and the same time limits means that the test has been
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standardized
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If a large research study measured the IQs of Caucasian middle-class American females and middle-class Japanese males, it is MOST likely that measures of heritability for the two groups would be
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different because heritability may vary from one group to another.
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The Featured Study concerning racial stereotypes and test performance found that when students believed a test analyzed problem-solving strategies, the performance of African-American students was
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similar to the performance of Caucasian students.
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Which of the following statements regarding creativity is TRUE?
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Highly creative people generally have above average intelligence.
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Which of the following statements regarding acceptable levels of test reliability is accurate?
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There are no absolute guidelines about acceptable levels of reliability.
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According to the “drudge theory” of exceptional achievement, eminence in a field depends on
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determination and tedious practice
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Criterion-related validity is
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estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test.
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The term that refers to the measurement of a test that examines whether the measurement is consistent is
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reliability
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Brenna took a test designed to measure her creativity. She tells you that her final score on the test was 70. She knows you are taking a psychology class, so she asks you what this score means. You should tell Brenna
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that you can’t interpret her score without knowing the norms for the test.
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Many researchers suggest that since many of the larger minority groups in the United States (such as African American, Native American, Hispanic) are over-represented in the lower class, ethnic differences in IQ should be considered to be the result of
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social class differences in experience.
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Roland is an architect who can design dream homes based on vague ideas and images that his clients bring to him. According to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, Roland is likely to score high in which of the following?
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spatial intelligence
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Which of the following does NOT characterize a psychological test?
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Psychological tests allow one to predict behavior with great accuracy.
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The person who is sensitive to others’ needs and accepts others for who they are is evidencing the ____ type of intelligence.
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social
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Supporting an argument by misusing a general lack of knowledge or information concerning an issue is referred to as the
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appeal to ignorance fallacy.
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According to recent research conducted by Ellen Winner, profoundly gifted children (those with an IQ above 180) are often
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introverted and socially isolated.
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Correlations measuring the reliability of IQ tests generally are in the range of
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+.90s.
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A group of sixth-graders all took a 100-word spelling test in order to qualify for the city-wide spelling bee contest. If a child needed to score in the top 20% of applicants to qualify, which one of the following students definitely qualified for the spelling bee?
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Connor, who placed at the 90th percentile
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Megan has an IQ score of 30 and is able to perform simple tasks in highly structured environments. According to the system traditionally used to categorize various levels of mental retardation, Megan would MOST likely be classified as having
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severe mental retardation
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____ tests measure specific types of mental abilities, and ____ tests measure a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects.
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Aptitude; achievement
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Which of the following statements regarding differences in IQ is NOT supported by research findings?
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The average difference in IQ between minority groups and Caucasians is largely a function of genetic factors.
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Dr. Carmody has designed a new critical thinking assessment test. He administers the test to a group of students in October. In April, he tests the same students and finds that the overall correlation between the two sets of scores is +0.91. Based on this information, Dr. Carmody could conclude that his new test
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appears to have high test-retest reliability.
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Which British scholar concluded in his book Hereditary Genius that success runs in families because great intelligence is passed from generation to generation through genetic inheritance?
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Francis Galton
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In a normal distribution of information, MOST people will be found
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in the center of distribution
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A valid test is one that
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measures what it is supposed to measure
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The results of recent research suggest that the incidence of ____ among profoundly gifted children (those with an IQ above 180) is about twice as high as in other children.
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interpersonal and emotional problems
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If your roommate tries to convince you that the college cafeteria uses leftovers from students’ dinner trays to make stew for the next day’s lunch by arguing that she has never seen the leftovers actually thrown out, your roommate’s argument is using
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an appeal to ignorance
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Which of the following statements corresponds most closely to Arthur Jensen’s position on ethnic differences in average IQ scores?
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IQ differences are a function of the relative nature of the gene pool for different ethnic groups.
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Dr. Iverson has had 25 students who have repeated her advanced economics class over the past five years. Each time, the students’ grades for the second attempt in her course were nearly identical to the grades received on the first attempt. This leads Dr. Iverson to conclude that her testing procedures
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provide reliable measures of student ability.
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A method for determining the reliability of a test taker’s score by comparing scores on separate testing sessions is known as
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test-retest reliability
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In most school districts, designations of intellectual “giftedness” tend to be determined primarily by
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IQ test performance
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If a test designed to measure extroversion correlates negatively with measures of social discomfort, correlates positively with measures of sociability, and has low correlations with measures of intelligence, you could conclude that the test has
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high construct validity
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Some critics argue that ____ use of the term “intelligence” is so broad, encompassing virtually any valued human ability, that it makes the term almost meaningless.
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Howard Gardner’s
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Which of the following is NOT one of the eight types of intelligence proposed by Gardner?
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emotional
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An elementary school child is given a test designed to determine whether or not she should be placed in a class of “gifted” children. The test is probably
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an intelligence test
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An individual’s percentile score is the percentage of people who
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score at or below his or her score
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In solving a problem using divergent thinking, a person
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tries to generate many possible answers or solutions.
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When tested on the Binet-Simon scale, Ada is found to have a mental age of 8. This means
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that her performance was as good as that of an average 8-year-old child.
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Which of the following statements about the influence of culture on the use of IQ tests is MOST accurate?
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Different cultures have different conceptions of what intelligence is.
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The results of twin studies and adoption studies BEST illustrate the unifying theme in psychology that
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heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.
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According to recent research, all of the following are crucial to the achievement of greatness EXCEPT
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intelligence
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Madisen has just completed a two-year internship with a law firm. She takes a test that is designed to assess her current knowledge of general legal principles. In this case, the test that Madisen takes would be classified as
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an achievement test.
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Which of the following statements regarding giftedness and achievement in life is MOST accurate?
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The vast majority of children selected for gifted school programs do not achieve eminence as adults.
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According to Joseph Renzulli, eminent adults who make enduring contributions to their fields tend to show high levels of all of the following, EXCEPT
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social skills
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IQ scores do NOT routinely increase as we get older because
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an IQ score is indicative of our relative standing in our particular age group.
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Which of the following statements regarding the findings from adoption studies and IQ is LEAST accurate?
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Unrelated children who are raised in the same home have no similarities in IQ.
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According to theories that employ the concept of reaction range, the upper limits of an individual’s intellectual potential are
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set by heredity.
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The correlation between social class and intelligence is
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positive
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Which of the following statements BEST reflects current expert recommendations regarding the identification of gifted children?
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Schools should not rely too heavily on IQ tests to select gifted children.
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Lanette is arguing with her professor that questions on her last test were not covered during lectures or in the textbook. Lanette is basically arguing that the test did NOT have
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content validity
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Sternberg’s research on intelligence suggests all of the following EXCEPT that
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practical intelligence is superior to both analytical and creative intelligence.
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In trying to make a decision about a career that would fit your abilities and interest, you would probably want to take a test that would measure your potential or talent for specific kinds of activities. A test that would measure this sort of potential would MOST likely be
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an aptitude test
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Phenylketonuria may lead to mental retardation because of
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an inherited enzyme deficiency.
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Silas took the College Aptitude Test (CAT) when he was a junior in high school and attained a very high score on the test. When Silas was in college, he was suspended his first year; when he was readmitted, he ended up dropping out because he did poorly in all his classes. When Silas went for career counseling, he retook the CAT, and again he earned a very high score. Based on Silas’s experience, you might conclude that the CAT has
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high reliability but low validity.
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Shawna’s IQ score was calculated using the formula developed by Lewis Terman, and the result was 92. This indicates that
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Shawna’s chronological age is greater than her mental age.
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Test-retest procedures are used to determine a test’s
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reliability.
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Which of the following statements BEST reflects current thinking regarding the relationship between creativity and mental illness?
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There may be a correlation between major creative achievement and vulnerability to mood disorders.
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Psychologists who emphasize that most mildly retarded children come from the lower socioeconomic classes tend to believe that the majority of cases of mental retardation are caused by
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environmental factors
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Which of the following statements regarding the creative process is MOST accurate?
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Creativity generally emerges out of normal problem-solving efforts.
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(Mental age/chronological age) ÂŽ 100 yields
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an intelligence quotient
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Wechsler developed the deviation IQ based on the normal distribution. On his test, an overall IQ of 130 would mean
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the person scored two standard deviations above the mean.
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Which psychologist concluded that humans exhibit eight largely independent types of intelligence?
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Howard Gardner
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Which of the following statements regarding giftedness and achievement in life is MOST accurate?
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The vast majority of children selected for gifted school programs do not achieve eminence as adults.
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Ishmael and Aliyah were enrolled in different sections of the same course. When Aliyah was taking her midterm exam, there was a lecture being held in the next room. This distracted her and made it difficult for her to concentrate on her exam. When Ishmael wrote his midterm exam, the room next door was empty and he had no distractions. In this example, the administration of the midterm exam for this course
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was not standardized across the two course sections.
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In 1969, Arthur Jenson suggested that
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ethnic differences in IQ are largely due to genetic factors.
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Intelligence tests tend to measure ____ thinking; tests of creativity tend to measure ____ thinking.
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convergent; divergent
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Fiona is 8 years old and has a mental age of 10, based on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Denise is 10 and has a mental age of 12, based on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Using the intelligence quotient scoring system suggested by William Stern,
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Fiona would be considered “more” intelligent than Denise.
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The type of intelligence that includes memory capacity and speed of information processing is known as
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fluid intelligence.
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Which of the following statistics is generally used to estimate reliability and validity?
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The correlation coefficient
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If a psychological test measures what it was designed to measure, the test has ____. If it also shows measurement consistency, it has ____.
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validity; reliability
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Which of the following is NOT one of the “primary mental abilities” proposed by Thurstone?
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Convergent thinking
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Most intelligence tests over the years have tended to stress
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verbal and reasoning skills related to academics.
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Recent research suggests that sterotype vulnerability may undermine test performance by reducing
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working memory.
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When Charmaine was 10 years old, she completed the original Binet-Simon scale. She answered all the questions that a typical 6-year-old would answer, but none of the questions a typical 7-year-old would answer. Based on this information, Charmaine’s mental age would be
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6 years.
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Conrad works at an advertising agency and is one of the first people called in when brainstorming for a new campaign. He has the unique ability to generate hundreds of creative suggestions that no one else seems to think of. This suggests that Conrad is skilled in
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divergent thinking.
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You recently took the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and just learned that your IQ is 100. This IQ score of 100 means
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that you showed average performance on the test.
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Coleman is currently 30 years old. When he was 15 years old, he took an intelligence test and was told that his IQ score was 110. If Coleman retakes the intelligence test now, he would likely discover that his current IQ score
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is similar to his previous score of 110.
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Which of the following statements is the MOST debatable?
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Genetic factors are strongly implicated as the cause of ethnic differences in intelligence.
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According to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, someone who is high in practical intelligence should
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be able to solve problems that are unique to the existing cultural surroundings.
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The consensus among MOST researchers is that the heritability of intelligence is
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around 50%.
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In which of the following cases is the correlation between IQ scores the lowest?
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Non-twin siblings reared apart
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Research suggests that the amount of time people spend living abroad is positively correlated with
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creativity
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Any psychological test should be seen as
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a sample of a person’s behavior.
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A group of high IQ students are found to have larger brains than a group of low IQ students. From this, we can conclude that
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None of the above can be concluded from this finding
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In which of the following cases is the correlation between IQ scores the HIGHEST?
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Fraternal twins reared together
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The Flynn effect is the finding that
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performance on IQ tests seems to be rising steadily and consistently over time.
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Experts estimate that the heritability of intelligence is approximately 50%. This suggests that
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50% of the variability in intelligence in a population of individuals is due to variations in genetic inheritance.
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The fact that the correlation in IQ scores between identical twins reared apart is lower than that between identical twins reared together suggests that
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environmental factors can have an influence on intellectual development.
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Professor Ridley is known for giving fair exams that include only test items for which the student should have been prepared. Professor Ridley’s exams can be said to be high in
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content validity.
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Which type of validity is evaluated with logic more than with statistics?
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Content validity
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Larry tells you that his 10-year-old cousin recently completed an intelligence test that translated raw scores into deviation IQ scores. Larry knows that his cousin’s score was 120, but he is not sure what this means. You should tell him that his cousin
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scored above the mean for 10-year-olds.
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Which of the following is NOT one of the parts of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
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General mental ability subtheory
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Most school districts consider children who fall in the ____ of the IQ distributions to be gifted.
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upper 2-3%
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One explanation for the link between intelligence and mortality is
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smart people take better care of themselves.
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Which of the following individuals would you predict would be MOST likely to have a high-status occupation ,such as being a doctor or lawyer?
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Ben, who has an IQ of 135
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Which theorist set out to improve on the measurement of intelligence in adults with an intelligence test with two major innovations: that the score was less dependent on a subject’s verbal ability and the use of a deviation intelligence quotient?
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David Wechsler
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What kind of validity do tests such as the SAT and ACT particularly strive for?
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Criterion-related validity
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Mental retardation is currently defined as
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a subaverage general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in everyday adaptive skills.
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Correlations between IQ scores and school grades can BEST be characterized as
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moderately positive
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Creativity tests are ____ in predicting the creative achievements of people in the real world because they tend to measure creativity as a ____.
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not very accurate; general trait
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Which of the following explanations for racial differences in intelligence is BEST supported by research evidence?
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cultural disadvantage
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Modern IQ tests have a mean of ____ and a standard deviation of ____.
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100;15
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Which statistical method is used to determine the reliability of a test?
answer

correlation coefficients
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Which of the following statements corresponds MOST closely to the position on ethnic differences in average IQ scores presented by Herrnstein and Murray in The Bell Curve?
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Ethnic differences in average IQ scores are substantial and are partly genetic in origin.
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Convincing evidence for the role of environmental influences on intelligence is provided by studies that compare
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adopted children to their adoptive parents.
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Which technique analyzes correlations among many variables to identify closely related clusters?
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Factor analysis
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Which of the following statements concerning psychological tests is FALSE?
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Intelligence tests measure a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects
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Everyone likes to have Lydia working on their committees because she seems to have the unique ability to consider a variety of options and quickly narrow the list of options down to the one or two best alternatives. In other words, Lydia is skilled in
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convergent thinking.
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Walter has taken a test that attempts to assess his interests and attitudes. Walter has MOST likely taken
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personality test
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Steele’s theory of stereotype vulnerability is an attempt to explain why
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African Americans score lower than average on IQ tests.
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In the first half of the 20th century, a strong current of racial and class prejudice supported the idea that IQ tests measured innate ability and that “undesirable” groups scored poorly because of their genetic inferiority. This development BEST reflects which of the following themes of your textbook?
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Psychology evolves in a sociocultural context.
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Dr. Clarke designs a test she believes will predict an individual’s ability to perform in managerial positions. When Dr. Clark administers her test to 100 managers at Aldor Corporation, she finds that some of the best managers do well on the test, but others do quite poorly. Dr. Clarke should probably conclude that her test
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lacks criterion-related validity.
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Which of the following explanations of ethnic differences in IQ scores suggests that a person’s beliefs that others will attribute his or her possible failure to racial inferiority will lead to performance anxiety and lower IQ scores?
answer

stereotype vulnerability
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The correlation between a group’s scores on an industrial aptitude test and actual performance on the industrial job would describe the test’s
answer

criterion-related validity.
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The results of the Featured Study on racial stereotypes and test performance suggest that
answer

stereotype vulnerability appears to impair minority group members’ test performance.
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Dr. Fuller needs a really creative student to assist with the design of a new research project. She’s asked to see the IQ scores of a number of students so she can use the scores to choose her new research assistant. What does Dr. Fuller need to know before making her decision?
answer

Creativity is related to intelligence, but only weakly.
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The fact that a test is given with uniform procedures in administration and scoring means that the test has been
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standardized
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People who score high on IQ tests are MORE likely than those who score low to have
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high grades in school and high-status jobs.
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The perspective on the investigation of intelligence that focuses on how people use their intelligence is the
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cognitive perspective
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Dr. Darden is concerned about whether or not the final exam in his physics class accurately measures a student’s accumulated knowledge about core concepts from the course. It appears that Dr. Darden is MOST concerned with the
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validity of his final exam
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Predictability is to criterion-related validity as ____ is to test-retest reliability.
answer

consistency
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Which of the following statements is an example of reification?
answer

She gets good grades in school because she is intelligent.
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What occurs when a hypothetical, abstract concept is given a name and then treated as though it were a concrete tangible object?
answer

a reification
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Which of the following researchers proposed the notion of stereotype vulnerability to explain ethnic differences in IQ scores?
answer

Claudia Steele
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Which of the following is NOT one of the items Galton measured in order to assess intelligence?
answer

brain size
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Which of the following statements does NOT reflect the current understanding of the influence of genetic and environmental factors on intelligence?
answer

Genetic and environmental factors combine to set a person’s reaction range
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Stanovich argues that IQ tests do not predict rational thinking because they do NOT measure
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critical thinking and the ability to weigh evidence.
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Recent research by Plomin (2006) suggests the strongest links found between genes and intelligence were associated with
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less than/nto 1% of the variation in intelligence.
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The BEST evidence supporting the role of genetic factors in intelligence is provided by studies that compare
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identical and fraternal twins
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Where a person’s actual IQ score falls within the reaction range is determined by
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environmental factors
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Carolina has been raised in an intellectually enriched environment with lots of books and age-appropriate toys. The reaction range model suggests that Carolina will
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score near the top of her potential IQ range.
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In comparison to most other types of psychological tests, IQ tests tend to be
answer

exceptionally reliable.
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The question, “How many uses can you think of for a paper clip?” would be MOST likely found on
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a creativity test
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Which of the following appears to be the MOST responsible for ethnic differences in IQ?
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The cultural disadvantages associated with a lower-class upbringing
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The use of intelligence tests in making employment hiring decisions
answer

is a questionable practice
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The correlation between IQ scores and vocational success is BEST described as
answer

moderately positive
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When test performance is compared to other independent criteria currently available to access a given trait, the psychologists is measuring
answer

criterion-related validity
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If you wanted to be able to predict your success at being an engineer, you would take a test that measured your potential for this profession. It is hoped that the test would be high in
answer

criterion-related validity.
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Critics argue that heritability explanations for ethnic differences in IQ have a variety of flaws and weakness; these weaknesses do NOT include
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within-groups comparisons are more likely to be the result of environmental influences.
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Which of the following does NOT describe what Terman’s gifted children were like as adults?
answer

Several individuals were recognized for genius-level contributions in their fields.
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According to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, someone who is efficient at processing information and who performs well on conventional tests designed to measure reasoning and logical-mathematical abilities should score high in
answer

analytic intelligence.
question

Following the death of their parents ten years ago, identical twins Glenda and Brenda were placed in an understaffed orphanage. Brenda remained in the orphanage, while Glenda was adopted by a loving middle-class couple. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to occur?
answer

Brenda will have an IQ near the upper limit of her reaction range
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The average IQ of this year’s graduating class at Bradbury High is 112 points. The average IQ of the graduating class from 25 years ago was 107 points, and the average IQ of the graduating class from 50 years ago was 101 points. This trend is consistent with
answer

the Flynn effect
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Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon devised the first intelligence test in 1905 in order to
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predict the school performance of children.
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People with high IQs tend to have ________ in their brains than people with low IQs.
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more gray matter and more white matter
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Which of the following is NOT one of the eight types of intelligence described by Gardner?
answer

mechanical
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Which of the following individuals would be most likely to think that IQ tests have validity? A person who believes IQ tests are designed to
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predict school performance
question

Ashley is 30 years old. She has an IQ score of 60 and has developed academic skills equivalent to a sixth-grade education. She is self-supporting, even though she still lives with her parents. According to the system traditionally used to categorize various levels of mental retardation, Ashley would MOST likely be classified as having
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mild mental retardation.
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Monica recently completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and was told that her deviation IQ score fell at the 50th percentile. This means that
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Monica’s IQ score would be 100.
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The form of mental retardation that is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome is
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Down Syndrome
question

According to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, someone who is high in analytic intelligence should
answer

perform well on conventional tests designed to measure reasoning skills.
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Standardized tests designed to predict how well you will do in college are MOST appropriately called
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aptitude tests
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Information about where a particular score on a test falls in relationship to some group is given by
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test norms
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Ira has never done well on conventional tests designed to measure reasoning and logical-mathematical abilities, but when new and complex situations arise at his job, he is always the one who seems to come up with novel and effective solutions for the problems. According to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, Ira shows
answer

high creative intelligence but lower analytical intelligence.
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An achievement test measures
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a person’s mastery and knowledge of a subject.
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Approximately ____ of IQ scores fall between 85 and 115.
answer

68%
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Creativity test items that give respondents a starting point and then require them to generate as many possibilities as they can in a short period of time are scored on the basis of
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all of these things
question

If you are told that Philip displays the mental ability typical of an 11-year-old child, you know Philip’s ____ is 11.
answer

mental age
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The argument that no one has demonstrated that intelligence is largely shaped by environment, so it must be largely inherited, is an example of
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an appeal to ignorance
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The notion that all cognitive abilities share a core factor, labeled “g,” was proposed by
answer

Spearman
question

If environment affects intelligence, you should predict that the IQs of children who stay in understaffed orphanages will
answer

gradually decline as they grow older.
question

The test you are currently taking is an example of what kind of test?
answer

an achievement test
question

Who pioneered the idea that the bell curve could be applied to psychological characteristics?
answer

Francis Galton
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Most explanations for the Flynn effect revolve around
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a variety of environmental factors
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If a test yields nearly identical scores when it is retaken after a two-month interval, the test is said to be
answer

reliable
question

Many human traits, including intelligence, show a normal distribution. This means that
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most cases are near the middle of the distribution.
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Bill and Phil have equivalent IQ scores. Bill sees himself as a talented student, while Phil sees himself as a weaker student. It is likely that in school,
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Bill will perform better than Phil
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The original French intelligence test was revised and renamed the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale by
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Lewis Terman
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According to your textbook, creativity tests may have limited value. Why is this the case?
answer

The tests measure creativity out of context.
question

At the beginning of the semester, all the students enrolled in Tommy’s fitness class are required to take a test designed to assess their current fitness level. The test assesses each student’s fat-to-muscle ratio, asks a number of questions about lifestyle and personal habits, and also measures aerobic function and stress response. In this case, it appears that the preliminary fitness test
answer

is likely to have high construct validity
question

Family studies can indicate whether a trait runs in families, but they cannot provide conclusive evidence that a trait is influenced by heredity because
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family members share not only genes but also similar environments.
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Reliability refers to the ____ of a measuring device such as a test.
answer

consistency
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At the end of her calculus course, Mary takes a test to determine how well she has mastered the material. Her calculus test is primarily
answer

an achievement test
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Correlations between students’ IQ scores and their school grades suggest that IQ tests
answer

are a reasonably valid method to predict school performance.
question

The degree to which the items on a test are representative of the domain it is supposed to cover is referred to as
answer

content validity
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If a child who is 10 years old has a mental age of 12, the child’s IQ would be
answer

120.
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Regarding the debate about the structure of intelligence that lasted many decades, it is clear that
answer

the vast majority of intelligence tests are designed to tap “g.”

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