Psy 181 Chapter 9

Flashcard maker : James Storer
With respect to sex, patterns of sympathetic nervous system activation are:
Invariant across gender.
With respect to LeDoux’s emotional processing pathways, fast is to slow as _____ is to _____.
Amygdala; cortex
A garden snake slithers past Shayla’s feet as she walks to her driveway. Shayla startles, momentarily frightened. A spike of activity is probably occurring in the _____ in Shayla’s brain.
Amygdala
In one study, Ekman et al. (1987) secretly videotaped American and Japanese students as they watched repulsive film clips. In one condition, a researcher was present while the students watched the clips; in another condition, no researcher was present. In this experiment, the researcher’s presence was a(n) _____ variable.
Independent
Recently, Forgas (2008) proposed that the relationship between emotion and cognition is complex and bidirectional. This view is _____ with the response of _____ (1980, 1984) to cognitive appraisal theory.
Consistent; Zajone
Which theory emphasizes the physiological experience of emotion the LEAST?
Cognitive appraisal theory
Which statement BEST expresses one result of Schachter and Singer’s classic experiment?
Participants given no explanation for their arousal reported emotions consistent with the behavior of the confederate.
Which statement BEST captures Schachter and Singer’s objection to the James-Lange theory of emotion?
Different emotions may not correspond to distinct patters of physiological activation.
Both the James-Lange theory and the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion reflect the _____ perspective in psychology.
Biological
The equation \”stimulus = physiological response + emotion\” BEST represents the _____ theory of emotion.
Cannon-Bard
People who cannot feel their internal organs after spinal cord injuries:
Experience emotions, contradicting the James-Lange theory of emotion.
In the James-Lange theory of emotion, physiological responses _____ emotional experiences.
Precede
Excitement is a(n) ______ emotion
Pleasant, high arousal
An example of an unpleasant, low-arousal emotion is:
Boredom
As compared to an emotion, a mood is:
Less intense.
Suicide is responsible for _____% of the deaths associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
20-25
Gwen eats huge amounts of food in a single sitting, then vomits and uses laxatives to purge the excess food. Gwen appears to suffer from:
Bulimia nervosa
Consider the distinction between the set point and the settling point in the text’s discussion of hunger, eating, and obesity. Which statement is MOST accurate?
The set point is essentially a physiological concept; the idea of the settling point takes the social and cultural environment into account to a greater extent.
According to one recent study, nearly ______% of Americans are overweight, and ______% are obese.
70;30
Israeli and American researchers found a _____ correlation between the percentage of parole requests granted by Israeli judges and the length of time since the judges had eaten.
Negative
In one study described in the textbook (Wansink & Kim, 2005), moviegoers were given either medium or large buckets of popcorn. The buckets were filled with either fresh or stale popcorn. Which statement is true?
The size of the bucket and the popcorn’s freshness were both independent variables.
Hunger is to satiety as _______ is to ______.
Ghrelin; cholecystokinin
Dr. DeRidder lesions, or damages, the ventromedial hypothalamus in one group of rats and the lateral hypothalamus in another group. What effect might he expect on the eating behavior of each group of rats?
Rats with ventromedial lesions should begin overeating; rats with lateral lesions should stop eating.
Evidence suggests that using social networking sites such as Facebook:
Strengthens existing relationships.
Henry Murray emphasized the importance of the need for:
Achievement
According to Deci and Ryan (2008), the core human motivation is _____.
Self-determination.
Murray’s needs for power and achievement are probably BEST situated at the \”____\” level of Maslow’s pyramid
Esteem
According to Abraham Maslow, A person’s highest need is the need for:
Self-transcendence
Realizing one’s full potential:
Is near the top of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Which statement BEST expresses Maslow’s view of the relationship between physiological needs and psychological needs?
Physiological needs take precedence over psychological ones.
How does the arousal theory of motivation differ from drive-reduction theory?
Arousal theory suggests that people are sometimes motivated to increase rather than decrease their level of stimulation.
Think back to the \”learning\” chapter in the text. Behaviors fueled by drives are MOST likely maintained through:
Negative reinforcement.
Which statement BEST expresses the potential effect of extrinsic motivation on intrinsic motivation?
Extrinsic motivation may undermine intrinsic motivation.
Shellie takes college courses that interest her and enjoys learning for its own sake; Tori takes courses in which she is fairly certain she’ll do well and studies mainly to ensure good grades. Shellie is ____ motivated; Tori is _____ motivated.
Intrinsically; extrinsically
A university professor bases several test questions on the \”special feature\” boxes in the textbook. The professor is relying on _____ motivation to encourage her students to read these boxes.
Extrinsic
ost students have encountered a parent or a teacher who touted the value of \”learning for its own sake.\” This expression highlights the importance of _____ motivation.
intrinsic
According to the facial-feedback hypothesis:
facial expressions can affect a person’s emotional experience.
Basic emotions are those that are:
Innate
In the disco era, Donna Summer’s working-class heroine \”works hard for the money.\” Most likely, this woman was driven by _____ motivation.
extrinsic
An emotion is described as \”high arousal and positive valence.\” This means that the emotion is experienced as:
intense and pleasant.
Women are more adept at decoding facial expressions of emotion. This ability reflects:
either nature or nurture, or a combination of both: no one is certain.
Kayley just feels happy today. She can’t remember exactly when the feeling started, and she can’t think of a particular reason she should feel this way. Kayley is experiencing a(n):
Mood
Stress hormones are released by the _____ gland(s).
pituitary
Excitement is a(n) _____ emotion.
pleasant, high arousal
According to Schachter and Singer, human emotions are based on:
a physiological response and cognitive evaluation.
Anorexia nervosa is found in _____ cultures.
Most
According to the textbook, women tend to feel some emotions more often than men do. Which is NOT one of these emotions?
Fear
The notion that bodily changes lead to emotions is the core of the _____ theory of emotion.
James-Lange
The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion emphasizes the contribution of the _____ to emotional experiences.
thalamus
Dr. Schmidt studies the factors that direct human behavior, thought, and emotion. Dr. Schmidt studies:
Motivation
Some of the general themes of early instinct approaches to motivation are echoed in the _____ approach in contemporary psychology.
evolutionary
According to Lazarus, emotions:
stem from the way people interpret their interactions with the environment.
In serious cases of _____, women may experience amenorrhea.
anorexia nervosa
Which brain structure plays a central role in fear?
Amygdala
Which hormone signals hunger?
Insulin
Motivation theorists say that a(n) _____ exists when behavior is directed by an association between that behavior and its consequences
incentive
When behavior is motivated by personal satisfaction or interest, it is driven by _____ motivation.
intrinsic
The notion that bodily changes and emotions happen simultaneously is the core of the _____ theory of emotion.
Cannon-Bard
_____ theory was the earliest approach to motivation to develop in psychology’s history.
Instinct
The amygdala is located in the:
limbic system.
Obesity is defined as having a BMI of _____ or greater.
30
Think back to the ‘Learning’ chapter in the text. Behaviors fueled by drives are MOST likely maintained through:
negative reinforcement
A research study might expect a _____ correlation between participants’ age and the degree of sympathetic nervous activation in response to a threatening stimulus.
weak negative
Dewey just won a $65 million lottery prize. If he is typical, one year from now, he will be:
about as happy as he was before he won the lottery.
One of the theories of emotion reviewed in the textbook is sometimes called the \”two-factor\” theory. Based on the textbook’s discussion, the \”two-factor\” theory is MOST likely the _____ theory of emotion.
Schachter-Singer

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