Flashcard maker : Charles Clay
According to the essay, when does measurement error occur?
when respondents’ answers to the questions deviate from their own attitudes
Why do double-barreled questions make it difficult to evaluate the public’s opinion on an issue?
because it is difficult to know which part of the question respondents are replying to
When thinking about the role of public opinion in the democratic process, what do most citizens believe?
Lawmakers should follow the public’s will, even if it runs counter to their own best judgment
Which of the following statements accurately describes many Americans when they consider polling practices?
They believe randomly selected samples lead to inaccurate conclusions.
Based on the essay, what may occur as a consequence of sampling error?
Survey participants will not be representative of the broader population.
Which group is likely to be overrepresented by choosing a survey sample from among car owners and people listed in telephone books during the 1930s?
wealthy voters
According to this essay, which of the following is a likely result of corporate consolidation of the media?
more profit for corporate interests
The author of this essay on the deregulation of media and the Telecommunications Act of 1996 concludes that the Act encourages which of the following?
It encourages political socialization that may reinforce democratic and capitalistic values.
Why might corporate consolidation lead to more channels, but less choice?
The profit incentive encourages corporations to cut costs by offering similar types of shows.
Which of the following conditions that resulted from the Telecommunications Act of 1996 does the author contend may be a problem, but appears to occur only rarely?
A news channel’s parent company may quash a news story if the story paints the parent company in an unfavorable light.
How has the profit incentive of corporate news ownership contributed to the rise in partisan media?
The rise in available entertainment television programming means that news channels can offer a particular partisan slant in their news offerings to loyal \”niche\” audiences.
What are the two primary roles media play in reporting the news?
News media alert us about important issues and then investigate them.
What idea does the phrase \”accidental viewer\” express?
Prior to the rise of cable television, fewer channel choices meant some Americans were likely to watch the news even if they didn’t really like watching the news.
Why are news media so important to a functioning democracy?
A strong democracy requires an informed citizenry, and news media are a primary source of information for most voters.
Which of the following is currently regulated by the Federal Communications Commission?
broadcast television
What has proven to be the biggest impediment to government regulation of the Internet?
The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that congressional efforts to restrict obscenity on the Internet are a violation of the First Amendment’s protection of freedom of speech.
which of the following sources of news is most preferred by Americans?
Who developed the idea of the collective action problem?
Mancur Olson
Candace Lightner is an example of which of the following?
a political entrepreneur
If there is a difference of opinion between an industry (such as the Big Five auto manufacturers) and its consumers (such as people who buy cars), which side of the dispute is more likely to coalesce into an interest group?
Auto manufacturers are more likely to coordinate and form an interest group.
How do interest groups overcome the free-rider problem?
by offering selective benefits
What is ALEC?
the American Legislative Exchange Council
What is model legislation?
legislation written by a group for use in multiple jurisdictions
Who belongs to ALEC?
corporations and legislators from various states
What does amicus curiae mean?
friend of the court
Why (among other reasons) do interest groups file amicus briefs?
because they may be very effective
If lots of individuals and groups file amicus briefs saying that the Supreme Court should not take a case for review, how is the Court likely to respond?
It will take the case because the groups’ involvement signals the case’s importance.
In addition to filing amicus briefs, interest groups can affect the outcome of litigation by doing which of the following?
bringing suit and being a party
What is a political party?
an organization that runs candidates for office under a common banner in order to control government institutions
Who were the first political parties in Congress?
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
What was the first mass-based party called?
the Albany Regency
Why were party machines so effective?
They rewarded loyalty with patronage and other services.
What is patronage?
providing a government job to someone in exchange for their political support
What is the name of the document expressing the beliefs and policy agenda of a political party?
What is the name of a ballot issued by the government that includes all candidates for office?
Australian ballot
What happens in a nonbinding primary?
Delegates can vote for whomever they want.
Which of the following services (among others) do modern party organizations routinely provide to candidates?
coordinating primaries
Which of the following placed limits on the amount of money party organizations could donate to election campaigns?
the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1971 and 1974
What does it mean for the United States to have a two-party system?
Only two political parties realistically compete for office.
Which of the following is a barrier to third-party support in the United States?
single-member districts
Why is voter participation in elections at all levels of government in the United States important?
It promotes the stability of our democracy, it is an opportunity to vote one’s preferences, and it is a measure of the accountability of elected representatives.
Voter participation rates in the United States are lowest in what type of election?
local elections
Which of the following demographic groups exhibits the highest rate of participation in U.S. elections?
elderly voters
Which of the following statements represents the views of those who support voter identification laws?
Showing a valid form of identification to vote increases public trust in election outcomes.
Which of the following groups is most affected by voter identification laws?
lower-income, young, and minority voters
In general, where does voter participation in U.S. elections rank in comparison with voter participation in Belgium, France, and the UK?
among the lowest percentages
What country has the highest overall level of voter participation among these four countries?
What country has experienced the largest overall decline in voter participation rates?
the United Kingdom
What racial/ethnic group consistently turns out to vote at the highest rate in presidential elections?
What racial/ethnic group has shown the greatest increase in voter participation rates in presidential elections?
African Americans
What two racial/ethnic groups are consistently most similar in their rates of voter participation across elections between 1996 and 2012?
Latinos and Asians
Which of the following is the event from which the national-party nominees for president are chosen?
a convention
Imagine that Florida held its 2012 presidential primary election on February 15, and North Carolina held its 2012 presidential primary election on February 1. For 2016, Florida moves its primary to January 31, and North Carolina moves its primary to January 25. Is Florida better off?
No, earlier primary elections only matter if they are earlier relative to other states.
The national parties can penalize state parties for ignoring national party rules regarding timing of primaries by doing which of the following?
reducing the number of convention delegates the state receives
If a candidate for president is receiving public funding during the primary and caucus season, that candidate will lose federal funding in which of these scenarios?
He receives less than 10 percent of the vote in two consecutive primaries.
What impact does winning early primary elections have on candidates?
It builds momentum and excitement among candidates’ followers.
What do all of the groups mentioned in this essay have in common?
They cannot coordinate with a candidate’s campaign.
Individuals and groups have found ways to inject more money into political activity thanks to which of the following?
decisions of the Supreme Court
Which of the following is true about positive campaign ads?
They can help candidates solidify their own voting base by making them seem approachable and upstanding.
What was the result of Elizabeth Dole’s negative ad about Kay Hagan?
The ad prompted a backlash against Dole by people who thought she’d gone too far.
Which of the following statements best describes the \”single-payer\” system of health care?
The government provides access to health care by paying for it.
Approximately how many Americans do not have access to health insurance?
40 million
Which of the following statements best explains bureaucratic drift?
A bureaucratic agency implements policy more consistent with what Congress, not the president, wants.
How does health care reform’s high level of salience affect how the policy may be carried out?
It means that anyone who might be affected by it is involved in health care reform.
Why was a senator concerned about the health care bill mandating particular types of medical procedures?
The bill would give the government too much influence over medical decisions.
What is the intent of comparative effective research in health care?
to look for the best solutions to common health care problems
What are policy typologies useful for?
classifying a large amount of information about public policy into a smaller set of manageable categories
Distributive policies are also called which of the following?
pork barrel policies
Environmental policy would be considered which of the following?
a regulatory policy
What is a salient policy?
one that is important to the American people
Why might a policymaker be more likely to respond to citizen opinion on salient issues?
Responding to citizens on issues important to them can help policymakers satisfy constituents and win reelection.
Why are policymakers less likely to publicize their stances on complex issues?
Complex issues are difficult to explain to average citizens.
Why is the U.S. tax code considered to be a redistributive policy?
It is progressive, meaning that lower-income earners pay a lower tax rate than higher-income earners.
What does the author of this essay mean by the \”adoption\” of public policy?
the process by which a policy is approved by policymakers
What do we say when expenditures exceed revenue in a given fiscal year?
We have a budget deficit
What is the likely cause of the larger federal budget deficits found in 2009?
the economic recession, which forced more people onto government assistance while reducing the number of Americans who could pay taxes
In early American history, foreign-policy makers were afraid of what?
the dangers of having a large army and navy
Which of the following has been an enduring U.S. foreign policy goal throughout American history?
promoting U.S. economic prosperity
What is the term that describes a dominant power in the world?
When President John Quincy Adams warned the nation against \”going abroad in search of monsters to destroy,\” what was he was counseling against?
trying to impose our values on other countries
The Cold War was a struggle between which ideologies?
communism and democracy
What event precipitated the first Gulf War against Iraq?
the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
The United States maintains diplomatic relations with other nations through the exchange of which of the following?
Which figure most accurately describes the percentage of the U.S. government budget that is devoted to foreign aid?
1.5 percent
The political use of military force involves using the U.S. military to do what?
influence other states without actually going to war

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