PS Ch 1-14

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Rhetoric/Oratory
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practice of giving speeches
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Agora
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meeting in a public square
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Forum
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place for the discussion of public interest
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Canons of Rhetoric
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Invention Arrangement Style Memory Delivery
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Invention
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adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case
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Arrangement
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organizing the speech in ways best suited to the topic and audience
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Style
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way the speaker uses language to express ideas
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Memory
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practice of the speech until it can be artfully delivered
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Delivery
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vocal and nonverbal behavior you use when speaking
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Dyadic Commmunication
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happens between two people; as in a conversation
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Small group communication
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involves a small number of people who can see and speak directly with one another… duh
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Mass communication
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occurs between a speaker and a large audience of unknown people who usually are not present with the speaker, or who are part of such an immense crowd that there can be little to no interaction between speaker and listener
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Public Speaking
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a speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to an audience of people who are present during the delivery of the speech
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Source
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sender; person who creates message
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Encoding
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process of converting thoughts into words; creating, organizing, and producing a message
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Receiver
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audience; recipient of the source’s message
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Decoding
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process interpreting the message, based on their own experiences and attitudes
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Feedback
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the audience’s response to a message, can be conveyed both verbally and nonverbally
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Message
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content of the communication process: thoughts and ideas put into meaningful expressions, expressed verbally and nonverbally
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Channel
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medium through which the speaker sends a message
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Noise
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any interference with the message
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Shared meaning
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mutual understanding of a message between speaker and audience
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Context
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anything that influences the speaker, the audience, the occasion and thus the speech
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Rhetorical situation
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a circumstance calling for a public response
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Audience centered
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keep the needs, values, attitudes, and wants of the listeners firmly in focus
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Public-speaking Anxiety
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fear of anxiety associated with either actual or anticipated communication to an audience as a speaker
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Pre-preparation anxiety
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anxiety from knowing a speech must be given
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Preparation anxiety
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anxiety that arises only when they begin to prepare for a speech
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Pre-performance anxiety
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anxiety that is experienced as one rehearses for their speech
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Anxiety stop-time technique
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allowing anxiety to present itself for up to a few minutes until you deem time for confidence to step in
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Performance anxiety
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anxiety levels rises just before they begin speaking
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Visualization
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visualizing a series of positive feelings and reactions that will occur on the day of the speech
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Ethos
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character; ethics
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Speaker credibility
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good character makes a speaker likable
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First Amendment
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freedom of speech
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Defamatory
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potentially harms an individual’s reputation at work or in the community
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Reckless disregard for the truth
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knew what you were saying was false but said it anyway
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Public discourse
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speech involving issue of importance to the larger community
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Invective
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verbal attacks designed to unfairly discredit, demean and belittle those with whom disagree
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Dignity
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refers to ensuring the listener feel worthy, honored, or respected as individuals
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Integrity
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avoid compromising the truth for the sake of personal expediency
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Trustworthiness
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combination of honesty and dependability
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Responsibility
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being accountable for what you say
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Fairness
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refers to making a genuine effort to see all sides of an issue and acknowledging the info listeners need in order to make informed decision
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Hate speech
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offensive communication; directed towards a person’s racial, ethnic, religious, gender, or other characteristics
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Plagiarism
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passing off of another person’s info as one’s own
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Common knowledge
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info that is likely to be known by many people
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Direct quotations
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word for word
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Paraphrase
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restatement of someone else’s ideas, opinions, or theories in the speaker’s own words
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Summary
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brief overview of someone’s ideas, opinions, or theories
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Public Domain
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anyone may reproduce it
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Fair use
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permits the limited use of copyrighted works without permission for the purposes of scholarship, criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, or research
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Creative Commons
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an organization that allows creators of works to decide how they want other people to use their copyrighted works
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Listening
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conscious act of receiving, comprehending, interpreting, evaluating, and responding to messages
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Selective percception
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differences in processing info
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Dialogic communication
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open sharing of ideas in an atmosphere of respect
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Feedback loop
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continual adjustment between speaker and listener
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Active listening
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listening that is focused and purposeful
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Listening distraction
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anything that competes for the attention we are trying to give to something else
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Defensive listening
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when a listener decide that they won’t like what the speaker is going to say or that they know better
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Idioms
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colloquial expressions; apple of his eye
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Audience analysis
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process of gathering and analyzing information about audience members’ attributes and motivations with the explicit aim of preparing your speech in ways that will be meaningful to them
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Attitudes
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our general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events
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Beliefs
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attitudes based on beliefs; the ways in which people perceive reality
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Values
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our most enduring judgments about what’s good and bad in life, as shaped by our culture and our unique experiences within it; shapes attitudes and beliefs
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Identification
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a listener’s natural desire to to identify with the speaker and to feel that he or she shares their perceptions
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Captive Audience
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those required to hear the speaker
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Voluntary Audience
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those who attend of their own free will
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Pandering
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catering to the audience’s whims and abandon your own convictions
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Demographics
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the statistical characteristics of a given population
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Target Audience
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individuals within the broader audience whom you are most likely to influence in the direction you seek
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Co-culture
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social community whose perspectives and style of communicating differ significantly from yours
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Socioeconomic Status (SES)
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income, occupation, and education of a person
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Gender Stereotyping
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making assumptions about the preferences, abilities, and behaviors of your audience members
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Gender
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our social and psychological sense of ourselves as males or females
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Questionnaire
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series of open- and closed-ended questions
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Closed-ended questions
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elicit a small range of specific answers supplied by the interviewer
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Fixed-alternative questions
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contain a limited choice of answers; yes, no, sometimes
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Scale questions (attitude scales)
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measure the respondent’s level of agreement or disagreement with specific issues
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Open-ended questions
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allow respondents to elaborate as much as they wish
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Brainstorming
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generating ideas for topics by word association and topic (mind) mapping
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Word Association
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brainstorm by writing down a single topic that might interest you or your listeners
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Topic (mind) mapping
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brainstorm by putting a potential topic in the middle of a piece of paper
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General Speech Purpose
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What is my objective in speaking on this topic to this audience on this occasion? One of three: to inform, to persuade, to mark a special occasion
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Specific speech purpose
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lays out precisely what you want the audience to get from the speech
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Thesis statement; central idea
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theme of speech, stated in the form of a single, declarative sentence
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Supporting material
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examples, narratives, testimony, facts, and statistics
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Examples
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illustrate, describe, or represent things
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Brief examples
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offer a single illustration of a point
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Extended examples
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offer multifaceted illustrations of the idea, item, or event being described, thereby getting the point across and reiterating it effectively
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Hypothetical examples
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something that hasn’t happened; something that could happen in the future if certain events were to occur –> to make a point
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Story; narrative
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tell tales, both real and imaginary, about practically anything
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Parable
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a story illustrating a moral or religious lesson
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Anecdotes
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brief stories of interesting and often humorous incidents based on real life
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Testimony
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firsthand findings, eyewitness accounts, and people’s opinions
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Expert testimony
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includes findings, eyewitness accounts, or opinions from professionals trained to evaluate a given topic
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Lay testimony
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testimony by nonexperts such as eyewitnesses, can reveal compelling firsthand information that may be unavailable to others
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Facts
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represent documented occurrences, including actual events, dates, times, people, and places
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Statistics
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quantified evidence that summarizes, compares, and predict things
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Frequency
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a count of the number of times something occurs
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Percetage
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quantified portion of a whole
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Average
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describes info according to its typical characteristics
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Primary sources
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provide firsthand accounts or direct evidence of events, objects, or people
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Secondary sources
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provide analysis or commentary about things not directly observed or created
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Periodical
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regularly published magazine or journal
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Encyclopedias
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summarize knowledge that is found in original form elsewhere
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Almanacs and fact books
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published annually, contain interesting facts and statistics on many subjects from notable Supreme Court decisions to vital stats for all nations of the world
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Atlas
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collection of maps, text, and accompanying charts and tables
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Blog
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a site containing journal-type entries maintained by individuals or groups
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Social News Site
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allows users to submit news stories, articles, and videos to share with other users of the site
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Deep Web
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large portion of the Web that general search engines cannot access because the info is licensed and/or fee-based
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Information
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data that are presented in an understandable context
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Propaganda
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info represented in such a way as to provoke a desired response
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Misinformation
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always refers to something that is not true
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Disinformation
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the deliberate falsification of information
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Subject (web) directory; subject guide
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a searchable catalog of web sites organized by a human editor, into subject categories such as \”science\” or \”references\”
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Paid placement
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when search engines and directories accept fees to from companies in exchange for a guaranteed higher ranking within results
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Paid inclusion
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when engines or directories accept fees to include companies in the full index of possible results, without a guarantee of ranking
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Keywords
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words and phrases that describe the main concepts of topics
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Subject heading
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term selected by info specialists to describe and group related material in a library catalog, database, or subject directory
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Oral citation
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credits the source of speech material that is derived from other people’s ideas
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Source reliability
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refers to our level of trust in a source’s credentials and track record for providing accurate info
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Source Qualifer
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brief description of the source’s qualifications to address the topic
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Introduction
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establishes the purpose of the speech and shows its relevance to the audience
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Body
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presents main points that are intended to fulfill the speech purpose
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Conclusion
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brings closure to the speech by restating the purpose, summarizing main points, and reiterating why the thesis is relevant to the audience
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Main Points
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express the ideas of the speech
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Parallel Form
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in similar grammatical form and style
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Supporting points
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represents the supporting material or evidence you have gathered to justify the main points
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Coordination and subordination
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logical placement of ideas relative to their importance to one another
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Coordinate points
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indicated by their parallel alignment
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Subordinate points
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indicated by their indentation below the more important points
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Transitions
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words, phrases, or sentences that tie the speech ideas together and enable the speaker to move smoothly from one point to the next
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Restate-forecast transition
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transitioning from one point to the next by first restating the points just covered and then previewing the material to be covered next
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Signposts
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conjunctions or phrases: next, first, we now turn…, finally, similarly
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Previews
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transitions that tell the audience what to expect next
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Preview statement
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briefly introduces the main points of the speech
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Internal previews
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previews within the body itself
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Internal summary
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draws together important ideas before the speaker proceeds to another speech point
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Chronological pattern of arrangement; temporal pattern
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follows natural sequential order of the main points; series of developments in time or a set of actions that occur sequentially
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Spatial Pattern of arrangement
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describe or explain the physical arrangement of a place, scene, or an object
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Cause-effect pattern of arrangement
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explain or demonstrate a topic in terms of its underlying causes or effects
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Problem-solution pattern of arrangement
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demonstrate the nature and significance of a problem and justify a proposed solution
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Topical pattern of arrangement
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stress natural divisions in a topic, in which, points can be moved to emphasize audience needs and interests
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Narrative pattern of arrangement
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convey ideas through a story, using a character, plot, and settings
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Work outline
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purpose is to organize and firm up main points and , using research you’ve gathered, to develop supporting points to substantiate them
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Speaking outline; delivery outline
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the one you use when you’re practicing and actually presenting the speech
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Sentence outline
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each main and supporting point is stated in sentence form as a declarative statement
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Phrase outline
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uses partial construction of the sentence form of each point
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Key-word outline
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uses the smallest possible units of understanding to outline the main and supporting points

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