project and change management

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Types of infosys projects
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– software development – package implementation projects – system enhancement projects – consultancy and business analysis – systems migration projects – infrastructure projects – outsourcing projects – business continuity projects
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Why PM
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– need to harness increasingly diverse knowledge – growing demands for a broad range of complex goods and services – increased worldwide competition – increases likelihood of accomplishing goals of a project – gives us someone to spearhead project and to hold accountable for completion ” The need to build complex products under intense time and budget pressure whilst harnessing a diverse range of expertise towards a single goal under the threat of intense competition demands a methodology by which all of these threads are brought together to meet project objectives”
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Project Objectives
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1) Time 2) Cost 3) Quality 4) Scope Can trade each of them off Implications: meet the budget, finish on schedule, meet specifications that satisfy the client
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Project definition
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A time and cost restrained operation to realise a set of defined deliverables (the scope to fulfil the project objectives) up to quality standards and requirements
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Project Manager + 3 skills
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– key individual on a project – usually assigned at early stages 1) Technical – comprehensive understanding, and can confidently challenge others 2) Transactional – planning project activities/organising resources – overseeing execution of plan, conducting reviews, tracking progress, reporting 3) Transformational – soft skills (ability to connect with people) – good listener, can deal with egos/conflicting personal and political agendas
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Project characteristics
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– importance – scope – life cycle with final due date – interdependencies – uniqueness – resources – conflict
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Cons of PM
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– greater organisational complexity – higher probability organisational policy will be violated – managers that cannot accomplish the desired outcome may blame uniqueness
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5 Challenges in requirements engineering
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1) Customers don’t really know what they need 2) Requirements always change 3) Customers have unreasonable timelines 4) Communication gap exists between stakeholders
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1) Customers don’t know what they want
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-> spend enough time at beginning to understand objectives, deliverables and scope -> make visible any assumptions -> get customer to sign off
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2) Requirements always change
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-> because someone ignored or didn’t recognise a requirement, or some people don’t know what they want until they see it -> have clearly defined process for receiving, analysing and incorporating change requests -> set milestones for each development phase –> change requests clearly communicated to all stakeholders and documented
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3) Customers have unreasonable timelines
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-> common mistake is to agree to a timeline without having: conducted a detailed analysis of scope, determined available resources -> convert requirements spec into a project plan -> detail tasks and resources needed at each stage and model best-case, middle-case and worst-case scenarios -> enter into a conversation about deadlines with a customer -> be reasonable
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4) Communication gaps exist between stakeholders
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-> customers, engineers and project managers may interpret language in different ways leading to confusion -> take notes at every meeting, distribute to project team and stakeholders -> be consistent with terms
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5) Development team doesn’t understand the politics in customer’s org
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– large orgs have internal conflicts -> good PM builds a shared vision, unites parties and removes obstacles -> review existing network and identify info you need and who has it -> cultivate allies, build relationships, think systematically about social capital
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Why Requirements Engineering
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– requirements play a key role and frequently are not described properly
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What is requirements engineering
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– the process of establishing what the customer requires from a system and the constraints under which it operates – RE deals with principles, methods and tools to identify, describe, validate and manage requirements
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What is a requirement
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= described a property to be met or a service to be provided by the system – requirements are descriptions of system services and constraints – may range from a high-level abstract statement of a service or of a system constraint to a detailed mathematical functional specification – need to be complete (should include description of all requirements) and consistent (should be no conflicts or contradictions in the description of the requirements) – may be basis for a bid of contract – may be the basis for the contract itself
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Levels of requirements
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– business requirements = define the business problems to be solved – user requirements = looks at functionality of software from the suer’s perspective
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Types of requirements
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1) Functional requirements – describe services the system should provide, reactions to particular inputs, and behaviour in particular scenarios (what the system must do) 2) Non functional requirements – constraints on services/functions (time constraints) – can include user requirements, system requirements, business requirements 3) Content requirements (come from application domain)
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Requirements Engineering Process
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– elicitation (identifying) – analysis (stakeholder’s needs, assumptions identified and melded) – specification (formal documentation) – validation (complete/correct)
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What is risk
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an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on the project objectives – the exposure to adverse conditions Types include: – project risks affect the planning of the project – product/technical risks affect the quality/performance of outcome – business risks affect the economic success of the project
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Role of risk management
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= the coordination of activitiesthat direct and control the project with regard to risks – preventing bad things from happening across lifetime of project – risks frequently misdiagnosed because their underlying causes are missed
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Risk management steps
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1) identify sources of risk 2) assess the likelihood/probability of risk occurring 3) assess magnitude/impact of risk on the project 4) attribute a measure of severity to the problem 5) develop responses and contingencies 6) document the process
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Risk management process
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1) Context/planning – establish context -> develpp structure for risk identification/assessment – identify set of success criteria 2) Identify risks 3) Analyse risks – likelihood and impact, prioritise risks 4) Evaluate risks – strategies/responses (acceptance, avoidance, mitigation, transfer) 5) Treat risks – actively monitoring – feedback 6) Monitor and review – once RRP in place, triggers must be monitored – tools: risk audits, risk reviews, updating risk plan 7) communicate and consult
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Risk categories
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– technical – cost – schedule – client – contractual – quality – financial – political – environmental – people
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Risk control
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– implementation of risk management plan – risk management plan should be widely circulated -> develop a culture of risk management -> training and practice runs to help implement the plan – plan should be updated regularly to reflect changes in the project
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Benefit of risk management process
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– make informed decisions – improved planning and performance – ability to direct resources to risks of greater significance
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Why projects often go over shcedule
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– optimism – difficult to estimate resources required to complete a task – confuse progress with effort
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Work breakdown structure – why
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– difficult to analyse, plan and execute large tasks – complex tasks take long time to complete – deadlines that are long away don’t trigger immediate action – difficult to know when to start – difficult to know how much you have got to do
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WBS
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– show as indented list – major activity, sub activity, sub-sub activity – or show as graphical – split projects into tasks and estimate time and resources required to complete each task – organise tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce – minimise task dependencies to avoid delays caused because one waiting on another
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Schedule definition and reason
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– a schedule is the conversion of a project action plan into an operating timetable – not all activities need to be scheduled at same level of detail
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Issues with gant charts
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– dont know explicit relationships between tasks – difficult to represent a complex project with large number of tasks
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Definition: activity, network, path, critical path
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Activity = a specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use up resources and take time to complete Network = the arrangement of all activities in a project arrayed in their logical sequence and represented by arcs and nodes Path = the series of connected activities between any two events in a network Critical path = activities, events or paths which, if delayed, will delay the completion of the project
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Project Network diagrams
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– preferred technique for showing activity sequencing 1) ADM (arrow diagramming) – tasks represented by arrows, dependency shown as node (only FS relationships) 2) Activity on node (most popular) – tasks represented by nodes – dependency shown as arrows or links between nodes – can show all types of relationships
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Task dependencies
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1) Finish-to-start (FS) – must finish one before starting the other 2) Start-to-start (SS) – one cannot start unless the other has started 3) Finish-to-finish (FF) – one cannot finish until the other has finished 4) Start-to-Finish (SF) –
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Calculating activity times
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– each task has an optimal time, pessimistic time and most likely time expected time ( op + 4likely + pess)/6
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False deadlines
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– if you impose a deadline on your workers, treat it seriously – must be a consequence for not meeting it – everything can’t be urgent or top priority
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Benefits of Network Activity Charts
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– consistent framework for planning, scheduling and monitorng – illustrated the interdependence of all tasks, work packages and elements – denoted time when resources available for work – ensures proper communication between departments and functions – determines expected project completion date – identified critical activities, that, if delayed, delay the project completion time – identifies slack – illustrated conflicts/when things can run in parallel
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Critical Path Method (CPM)
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– used to predict total project duration – the series of activities which determines the earliest time by which the project can be completed (longest path through the network, least amount of slack) TO DETERMINE: – develop network diagram with duration estimates for all activities – longest path = critical path
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Slack/float definition
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the amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity or finish date
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Budget definition
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– plan for allocating resources – rarely happy with resources they are given – often is the allocation of scarce resources to various endeavours of an organisation
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Budget as a control mechanism
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= a baseline from which to measure actual vs planned uses or resources – initial budget reflects the planned use of resources – deployment of resources must be monitored – deviation must be captured and checked against progress of project
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Role of budget in PM
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– budget must be closely tied to achievement – budget data must be collected and reported in a timely manner – expenditure must be strictly controlled to prevent bad projects from affecting healthy projects
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Forecasting
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– what resources will a project require – how much of a resource will be needed – when will the resources be needed – how much will these resources cost
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Budget Estimation
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– reasonable estimations can be deduced from budget and audit reports of previous projects – value analysis uses a comparison of the actual costs early in the project with their estimated to adjust remaining costs – life cycles of past projects can be studied as models for the way costs accrue over life cycles of similar projects – the longer the project life, less PM can trust traditional estimation methods
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Top down budgeting
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– strategy based on collecting judgements and experiences of top and middle managers – estimate overall costs or projects and sub projects – give costs to lower level managers to breakdown into budget estimated for specific tasks and work packages – break down costs further to lowest level iteratively Assumption: lower level managers will argue for more funds if particular allocations are insufficient Advantages: – aggregate budgets can often be developed quite accurately – allocations for budget categories tend to be stable as a percentage of the total budget – experience/judgement of executive is presumed accurate overall estimates – makes up for little mistakes Disadvantages – high-level managers tend to dig-in over their estimates leaving lower-level managers frustrated and forced to commit to objectives despite lack of funds – lower level managers feel budgeting process is one manager’s gain is another’s loss and therefore increases competition – subordinates believe senior management tend to underestimate costs
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Bottom-up budgeting
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– individual task budgets are constructed from WBS – people doing work consulted regarding times and budgets – differences of opinion resolved through discussion between managers – resultant budget aggregated to give total direct costs of project – budget determined by adding indirect costs Advantages: – can be more accurate than top down – involves participative management so lower levels less likely to complain – gives junior managers valuable experience in budget preparation – knowledge of operations required to generate budget Disadvantages: – more difficult to develop a complete list of tasks – individuals may overstate resources they need because they expect budget cuts – persuasive managers win – rare because senior management see this strategy as risky (don’t trust ambitious subordinates, and budget is most important tool of control in company)
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Iterative budget by negotation
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– superior is constructing action plan for a task and estimating resource requirements for each step – subordinate responsible for the task estimates resource requirements on their own If superior and subordinate are honest — initial negotiation – superior is educated about realities of task – superior’s estimate rises – subordinate realises superior is reasonable so gives up inbuilt protection budget If they don’t agree – if project completion is S shape, go with superior – if project completion is J curve, go with subordinate
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Budget Request Process
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– typically starts with an invitation from senior along with expectations, passed down and data is collected and passed up – seniors need to feel in control, belief that a tight budget will motivate efficiency at lower levels
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Costing a task
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– must include personal time – overhead = costs not assigned to an item – to determine overhead one must separate project-related costs from non – direct costs: salary and wages – indirect costs: sick leave, taxes
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Additional factors in budgets
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– change in price of resources – prices of various inputs change at different rates – PM’s can use inflators/deflators for each – can bid too low if prices fall and then can’t afford – wastage
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Reasons for taking projects that aren’t feasible
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– project might give organisation useful experience – might be trying to break into new markets
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Costing factors
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– knowing what client’s budget is and knowing competition – lump sum – one figure for entire service – itemised costing – must be within reasonable range – if client changes scope you can claim variation which is charged at high rates – maybe want to take an infeasible project – need to factor cost changes
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Traditional budget vs program budget
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– traditional is category oriented, becomes too diffused to control and major expenditures become hard to track – program budgeting = cost per task – allows for more strict monitoring
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Definition Project Quality Management
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– to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken – must develop good relationships with stakeholders and customers to understand what quality means to them
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Processes of project quality management
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1) Quality planning – includes identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them 2) Quality assurance – involves periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards 3) Quality control – involves monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards while identifying ways to improve overall quality
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Quality planning
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– implies ability to anticipate situations – prevention of defects through a program of selecting proper materials, training people in quality – identify relevant quality standards for each unique project and to design quality into the products of the project and the processes involved in managing the project – must describe factors directly contributing to meet customer’s requirements -> organisational policies – main outputs are plans and checklists
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Quality assurance
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– ensuring quality products are actually delivered – includes activities related to satisfying relevant quality standards – benchmarking – generate ideas for quality improvements by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to other products
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Quality control
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– acceptance decisions determine if the products produced as part of a project will be accepted or rejected – reword is action taken to bring rejected items into compliance – process adjustments correct/prevent further quality problems based on quality control measurements – tools include statistical sampling, quality control charts, pareto analysis
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Pareto Analysis
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– involves identifying the vital few contributors that account for most quality problems – histograms that help identify and prioritise problem areas
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Statistical sampling
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– involves choosing part of a population (size affects representativity)
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Standard deviation
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– measures how much variation exists in a distribution of data – small SD means data cluster closely – little variation –
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Quality control charts
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– graphical display of data that illustrated the results of a process over time -> main use of control charts is to prevent defect- determines whether a process is in control or out of control -> in control = variation occurs due to random events – out of control = variation caused by non random events Seven run rule = if seven data points in a row are all below/above mean, or all increasing/decreasing, process needs to be examined for nonrandom problems
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Testing
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– unit tests done for individual components to ensure defect free – integration testing occurs between unit and system – system testing is entire system as one entity – user acceptance testing independently done by end users prior to accepting the delivered system
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Improving IT Quality
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– strong leadership – understanding cost of quality – providing good workplace to enhance quality – working toward improving the organisation’s overall maturity level
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Total quality management principles
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1) Continuous improvement 2) Focus on customer 3) Importance of teams 4) Management leadership, support and involvement
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1) Continuous improvement
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– few processes/products cannot be improved – better value, reduction of errors, improved responsiveness/effectiveness/efficiency
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2) Focus on customer
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– attracting, serving and retaining customers is the main purpose of everything – quality defined by customer behaviour/response – process improvements guided by customer needs/expectations QUALITY FIRST emphasises satisfying all customers
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3) Importance of teams
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– successful team is one that meets regularly to manage and improve parts of operation – essential that team has linkages to organisational goals and major improvement opportunities – ideal team includes: -> workers within process -> suppliers -> customers – not a committee ** can always form a team – quality improvement can be realised by work of such a team
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4) Management leadership, support and involvement
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– workers work in system, managers work on system – most of the time problem with the system, not the workers – managerial leadership means consistency directed toward achieving a vision
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Cost of quality
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– cost of conformance (delivering products meeting requirements) + cost of nonconformance 1) Prevention cost – cost of planning and executing a project that is error free 2) Appraisal cost – cost of evaluating processes and their outputs to ensure that a project is error free 3) Internal failure costs – cost insured to correct an identified defect before customer received the product 4) External failure cost – cost that relates to all errors not detected and corrected before delivery to the customer 5) Measurement and test equipment costs – capital cost of equipment used to perform prevention and appraisal activities
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Maturity Modelss
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– another approach to improving quality, framework for helping organisations improve their processes and systems -> allows organisations to have methods in place according to best practise, and clear external benchmarks – popular models: 1) Software Quality Function Deployment (SQFD) 2) Capability Maturity Model (CMM) 3) Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM)
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Software Quality Function Deployment Model
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– focuses on defining user/customer requirements – end result is set of measurable technical product specifications and their priorities – having clearer requirements can lead to fewer design challenges, increased productivity, and products more likely to satisfy stakeholders
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Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
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– laying out a generic path to process improvement for software development in orgs – gives a place to start, shared vision, benefit of prior experience, framework for prioritisation (levels of maturity) 1) initial 2) repeatable 3) Define 4) Managed 5) Optimising
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Project Management Maturity Model
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– formal tools to measure project management matutity – provides logical path for progressive development – application of maturity models is increasing quantity and breadth
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Earned value actual value planned value cost variance scheduled variance cost performance index scheduled performance index estimate at completion
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Amount earned (worth of work done) to date (EV) what has actually been spent on work (AV) planned spending on resources (PV) CV = EV – AV SV = EV – PV CPI =EV/AV SPI = EV/PV EAC = BAC/CPI

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