Principles of Horticulture (Exam 1 Review)

What is Horticulture?
(Plants, plant growing)
Definition: Hortis- “garden”, cultura- “culture”
• Learn only about plants that we either use or eat

Definition- Horticulture is the science and art of producing nutritious food for the body, like fruits nuts and vegetables, and beautiful food for the soul.
• Horticulture crops are more labor intensive
• Discipline of *range management* plans, mesquite trees, grass not horticulture plants. Cotton is a discipline of *agronomy* is not a horticulture crop. We don’t eat them,
• Horticulture crop examples, tomatoes, cacti using as a plant at home, azalas, hedges or shrubs, peach trees, apple trees, medical marijuana, turf grass used in a yard, or any plant used in your landscape.

Horticulture vs. other ag. disciplines
Horticulture crops are more intensively managed, meaning they need more care. They have a higher labor input making them require more money to grow in general. We do this because in the end there is a higher gross return, or profit.
• Acre of cotton vs. acre of geraniums in a garden- geraniums are a flowering plant, cotton is a cash crop.
• 1 acre = 43,560 sq ft.
o Selling cotton, as of Friday, cotton is sold for 1$ a pound. Average 700 pounds per acre= 700$ minus bills.
o Selling geraniums, 4 inch. 4 plants in 1 sq foot with no walking room. 75 percent of a greenhouse are plants, 25 is benches and walkways. 174,240 plants fill 1 acre x 75% 130,680 plants and sell for 1$ a plant=130,680$ for 1 acre.

Will you make the full price?
• No, you have to pay for inputs like equipment, water, fertilizer, geraniums require a container unlike cotton and more water and more soil, greenhouse. Lots of labor, each plant has to be managed individually (more intensively managed)
Difference between horticulture and other disciplines- fresh or living materials, other disciplines are processed first eg wheat turned into bread before being sold.

Forestry
the science of planting and taking care of trees, also a discipline

Agronomy
the productions of field crops, these crops are primarily used for fiber, feed, and fuel. A discipline.

Range management
the management of “wild lands” or native lands. Either wild life present, or to feed some sort of grazing animal.

Viticulture
(Studies within Horticulture)
study of grapes for wine production

Enology
(Studies within Horticulture)
study of wine or wine making

Floriculture
(Studies within Horticulture)
study of flowering plants

Pomology
(Studies within Horticulture)
study of fruit and fruit production

Olericulture
(Studies within Horticulture)
study of vegetable and vegetable production

Greenhouse management
(Studies within Horticulture)
study of managing a greenhouse

Turf grass management
(Studies within Horticulture)
study of turf grass, not all grasses.

Floral design
(Studies within Horticulture)
study of floral arrangements.

Nursery management
(Studies within Horticulture)
study of nursery management, nursery is growing smaller plants outdoors instead of in a greenhouse.

Aboriculture
(Studies within Horticulture)
study of trees.

Landscape Architecture
(Studies within Horticulture)
landscape management, using plants in landscape.

Interiorscaping
(Studies within Horticulture)
interior design w/ plants *ie. hotel lobbies etc.

Horticulture Therapy
(Studies within Horticulture)
Using plants for therapy/healing humans

Ag Tourism
(Studies within Horticulture)
making money off of agriculturally-based attractions *ie. christmas-tree farms/arboretums.

The word “hortus” means _______.
Garden

What are things you would not be able to do today without horticulture?
-wine/spirit making
-food production
-medical research

Scientific Classification: Which Kingdom?
Plant

Scientific Classification: Which Division?
Tracheophyta (seed bearing plants)

Scientific Classification: Which Classes?
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Angiosperms only can be broken down into subclasses, monocots and dicots)

Scientific Classification: Which Subclasses?
Monocots and Dicots

Scientific Classification: Which Order?
*many*

Scientific Classification: Which Family?
Often ends in aceae, often behave the same within the families

Scientific Classification: Which Genera (Genus)?
*many*

Scientific Classification: Which Species?
*many*

Who is the Father of Taxonomy
Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)
• Came up with the binomial naming system
• Based on sexual parts of the plants

Angiosperm (more common) vs. Gymnosperm
Angiosperms:
-Covered seed
-Flowering plant
-Broad leaf
-*ie. peach tree, cotton

Gymnosperms:
-Naked seeds
-Cone bearing
-Needle or Awl like leaf
-*ie. cedar, evergreen, pine

Monocots vs Dicots (angiosperms only)
Monocots:
-Parallel venation (veins)
-Flower parts in multiples of 3
-One cotyledon (1 seed leaf)
-Vascular bundles scattered (streaks in broken branch)
-only 1 monocot tree known (ginko tree)
-*ie. turfgrass

Dicots (most plants)
-nettled venation (veins)
-Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5
-two cotyledons
-vascular bundles in a ring (rings in a broken branch)
-*ie most trees, roses, most plants

Cultivar vs Variety
Cultivar:
-Man made
-Remain genetically true
-*ie rose, altered to make an improvement like more color, broader leaf etc.
-just add “Cultivar” at the end of the name

Variety:
-Found in nature
-*ie improvements made in nature
-Apple found in nature called red delicious that was more red and tastier than other apples, not altered by man but by nature.

Binomials Nomenclature
• Genus species or Genus species (must be underline or italicized)
• Authority sometimes follows species
Abbreviations of scientist who named species
• variety or variety immediately after species *never capitalized*
• ‘Cultivar’ after variety if both are present *first letter capitalized and in single quotes*
• sp. Vs. spp.
Examples: Gledistsia-Genus triacanthos-species inermis-variety ‘Skyline’-Cultivar “honey locus”
Solanum-Genus tuberosum-Species L. “potato”

Common vs Scientific Name
Why use scientific name? Avoid language barrier, no 2 plants have the same name, 1 plant may have 15 common names but 1 scientific name

Plant Classification
If trying to identify a plant or tree use Dichotomous key – search or Google online
• eg. Classification Key of Evergreen Trees in Utah
o 1. Leaves scaly like, cones are small, blue and berry like…go to 2
o 1. Leaves needle-like, cones are large and brown.. Go to 3

o Annual
(Growth Cycle)
– 1 growing season (not necessarily 1 year)

o Biennial
(Growth Cycle)
– 2 growing seasons, first season is vegetative growth (leaves stems and roots) second growing season reproductive growth (seeds and flowers and fruit if there’s fruit)

o Perennial
(Growth Cycle)
3 or more growing seasons, short lived are the shorter-lived perennials, long lived are the longer living like trees.

(Growth Cycle) What effects which you buy?
Perennials are cheaper; you do not have to replace them.

(Growth Habit) Trees
by def are over 6 feet tall, also in general 1 single vertical axis

(Growth Habit) Shrubs
by def are less than 6 feet tall, shrubs have multiple axis.

(Growth Habit) Herbs
this is all your herb, vegetables, viney plants; by def herbs do not have a “woody” component.

(Foliage Characteristics)Evergreen
green year round, does not mean they keep the same leaves year round. They just lose leaves slowly enough for them to replenish. Eg. Pines and cedars

(Foliage Characteristics)Deciduous
leaves fall off at sometime during the year. Drought deciduous trees lose leaves during the hottest driest time of the year. Have a dormant season unlike evergreens. Eg. Red oak,

(Foliage Characteristics) Why evergreen or deciduous?
Deciduous has a larger canopy and shades the house keeping heat down in the summer and giving more sunlight for more heat in the winter. Deciduous drops leaves in pool and yard. Evergreens offer aesthetic beauty year round.

(Water Usage) Xeriphyte
minimal amount of water doesn’t mean zero water.

(Water Usage) Mesophyte
moderate amounts of water,

(Water Usage) Hydrophyte
most amount of water, so water loving like orchids is cattails or things that live in the water. Most likely will not ever own in landscaping.

(Soil Adaptations) Halophytes
Plant that is salt tolerant, useful in places with salt water

(Soil Adaptations) Basolphilic
-base loving plant, high ph level

(Soil Adaptations) Acidophilic
-acidic loving plant, low ph level

(Temperature) Warm Season
Plants that thrive in warmer months of the year

(Temperature) Cool Season
Plants that thrive in the cooler months of the year

(Temperature) Hardiness
Based on cold usually

(Usage) Vegetables and fruits
plants with vegetables or fruits

(Usage) Foliage plants
usually interior plants, not outside in winter

(Usage) Bedding plants
Pretty flowers used in garden beds

(Usage) Turf grasses
sod, seed, etc

(Usage) Tree
trees

(Plant Organs – Pg 24 of lab manual) Flower
includes petals, stamen, reproduction, sex

(Plant Organs – Pg 24 of lab manual) Fruit
storage of plant’s food, sugar etc..

(Plant Organs – Pg 24 of lab manual) Seed
found in the flower, reproduction

(Plant Organs – Pg 24 of lab manual) Root
nutrient & water uptake, hormone synthesis, food storage, anchors plant, root hairs absorb most water

(Plant Organs – Pg 24 of lab manual) Stem
Support, plumbing for flow of xylem and Phloem, food storage in some, position, support flower and fruit, position leaves, buds (undeveloped or compressed stems or flowers)

(Specialized Stems-Below Ground) Bulb
underground, food storage, onion, tulip, daffodil, stem at the very base of the bulb. Has a cross section like onion rings.

(Specialized Stems-Below Ground) Rhizome
underground, food storage, just below surface and grow horizontally below the surface e.g. Ginger, Bermuda grass,

(Specialized Stems-Below Ground) Tuber
underground, food storage, potato, no cross section.

(Specialized Stems-Above Ground) Tendril
supportive stems, curly, vines, grapes

(Specialized Stems-Above Ground) Thorn
protection, all the way in the vascular cambium

(Specialized Stems-Above Ground) Prickle
protection, just in epidermal layer, leaf, rose

(Specialized Stems-Above Ground) Spine
actually leaf, on cacti

Meristems
• Responsible for changes in length and girth (outward growth)

Apical (meristems)
elongation, or upward growth, located at the tip

Intercalary (meristems)
elongation in monocots, located at the base of the plant

Secondary (meristems)
girth (outward growth) in dicots (dicot, netted venation, 4 5 plant parts, 2 cotyledons)

(Plant Organs – Pg 24 of lab manual) Leaf
• Flattened and expanded appendages
• Home to photosynthesis
• Contain chlorophyll which make them green, and also cause photosynthisis
• Epidermis- on top and bottom of leaf, for protection
• Spongy Mesophyll- Loosely packed cells resembles a “sponge”
• Palisade Layers- tightly packed cells
• Stomata or stoma- pores or holes in the epidermal layer of the leaf, allows gas exchange water vapor out, carbon dioxide in
• Guard Cells- 1 guard cell is located on each side of the stomata or pore. Responsible for opening and closing that pore.

(Plant Organs – Pg 24 of lab manual) Pistil
Female part, stigma, style, ovary included.

(Plant Organs – Pg 24 of lab manual) Stamen
male part, anther and filament included.

Leaves in Lab
• Leaf form- leaf shape
• Leaf Margins- outer edge (margins of paper is outer edge)
• Leaf Arrangements- how the leaves are positioned on a stem
• Leaf Tips- Part furthest away from the petiole (leaf stem)
• Simple or Compound leaf

(Tissues-Plant organs are composed of tissues) Xylem
movement of water and dissolved minerals

(Tissues-Plant organs are composed of tissues) Phloem
movement of metabolites (plant manufactured substances)

(Tissues-Plant organs are composed of tissues) Meristems
Undifferentiated cells where growth can take place

(Tissues-Plant organs are composed of tissues) Epidermis
outer layer

About Plant Cells
• Tissues are made of cells
• Cell wall- provides structure
• Nucleus- “brain of cell” houses DNA
• Mitochondria-Home to respiration
• Plastids-
-Chloroplasts-

(Plant Manufactured Substances) Carbohydrates
• C,H,O ratio 1:2:1 (exam help)
• Primary component of cell walls
• Energy storage
• Edible
o Glucose, sucrose, starch
• Structural
o Cellulose

(Plant Manufactured Substances) Lipids
• Oils, fats, and acids
• Hydrophilic end- water repelling
• Hydrophobic end- water loving
• Phospholipids- have a stomata,
• Suberins
• Cutin

(Plant Manufactured Substances) Proteins
• C-N backbone if you see C-N single bond in backbone, you know it’s a protein (Exam help)
• 2nd most abundant
o Enzymes-type of protein
• Catalysts- enzymes that speed up a reaction (not all enzymes are catalysts)

(Plant Manufactured Substances) Nucleic Acids
• DNA
o Makes us what we are
• RNA
o Translated into proteins
• Nucleus- “brain of cell” DNA stored here

(Plant Manufactured Substances) Alkaloids
• Addictive- if consumed e.g. tobacco, caffeine, chili peppers

(Plant Manufactured Substances) Phenolics
• Lignin- stiff compound that provides additional structure in woody plants and grass
• Disease resistance

(Plant Manufactured Substances) Alcohols
• Add flavor
• Add texture
• Softer flavors

(Plant Manufactured Substances) Esters
• Add flavors
• Add texture
• Heavy-sweet

(Plant Manufactured Substances) Tannins
found in the skin of red grapes
• Bitter flavor

(Plant Manufactured Substances) Pigments
• Chlorophyll
• Carotenes
• Lutiens
• Limonins
• Lycopene
• Anthocyanins
• Anthoxanthins
• www.mypyramid.gov

Phytochemical
• Plant produced chemical that has a function and health benefit beyond nutrition
• Plant manufactured substances that are not a vitamin or nutrient, but for various reasons they have a health benefit to us.

(Phytochemical) Chlorophyll
– green pigment in plants, responsible for making the plant photosynthesize, also anti-carcinogenic, water soluble

(Phytochemical) Luteins
(spinach, broccoli, lettuce)- also green pigments, usually darker green, antioxidants, scavenge free radicals, also thought to be anti aging, water soluble

(Phytochemical) Carotenes
(carrot, pumpkin, yellow bell peppers and squashes)- responsible for mostly yellows and oranges and a few reds, naturally high in vitamin A, also serve as antioxidants, fat soluble meaning

(Phytochemical) Lycopene
(red watermelon, red grape fruit, tomatoes, and a handful of olive species)- Health benefits, fat soluble,

(Phytochemical) Limonins
Yellow compounds some oranges found in citrus, antioxidants,

(Phytochemical) Xanthophylls
yellows in flowers,

(Phytochemical) Anthocyanin
(raspberry, blueberries, egg plant)-provide plants with blues, deep reds, and purples, have anti inflammatory qualities, cancer fighting/ preventatives, water soluble

(Phytochemical) Anthoxanthins
white in color, antioxidants, not many vegetables or fruits,

(Movement of Plant Substances) Diffusion
movement from a high concentration to a low concentration, energy free

(Movement of Plant Substances) Osmosis
Diffusion across a semi- permeable membrane, energy free

(Movement of Plant Substances) Diffusion against a gradient
net movement of a substance from a lower concentration to a higher concentration

What is photosynthesis?
• Growth of plants is due to sugars manufactured by plants
• Plants serve as energy for all living things
• Plants turn kinetic energy into potential energy and then into kinetic energy again.

Autotrophs
organisms that make there own energy

Autotrophs-Chemomorphs
use inorganic chemicals as energy source

Autotrophs-Photomorphs
use light as energy source

Heterotrophs
consume autotrophs as their energy source

What is the correct balanced formula for photosynthesis?
6h20 + light + 6cO2 -> c6h12O6 + 6O2

-Must have chlorophyll
-Must have light

What type of lights do plants use?
visible light (400-700nm)
-mostly effective w/ red and blue

Chloroplasts
o Home to photosynthesis
o Contain membrane layers full of chlorophyll

Chlorophyll a and b
o Chlorophyll a most important in photosynthesis
o Chlorophyll b transfers energy to chlorophyll a
o 2 forms of chlorophyll a
o Responsible for trapping light for Photosynthesis

Photosystem I
• Receives energy from chlorophyll a

Photosystem II
• Receives energy from chlorophyll a and accessory pigments

Explain the differences between xylem and phloem tissues.
xylem-water&minerals
phloem-plant manufactured chemicals

Explain the diference between apical and secondary meristems
apical-elongation, or upward growth, located at the tip

secondary-girth (outward growth) in dicots (dicot, netted venation, 4 5 plant parts, 2 cotyledons)

Explain the difference between a rhizome and stolon.
Rhizome-underground, food storage, just below surface and grow horizontally below the surface, usually thick e.g. Ginger, Bermuda grass,

Stolon-generally above ground, usually thin, used as runners for plant cloning

T/F: A complete flower has a stamen, pistil, petals, and stepals?
True

T/F: Adventitous roots are roots that form where they normally would?
False

Tap root
thick main roots off “primary root”

Fibrous root
More thin fiber-like root hairs, no “primary root”

Adventitious root
Roots that form where they normally would not. E.g. the bottom of your cutting in lab

Storage roots
Roots that have the ability to store nutrients such as sugars and carbohydrates.

A tendril is used for _______.
Support

Some fruits and vegetables have pigments which are _________?
Phytochemicals & Antioxidants

T/F: All carbohydrates are edible?
False