Principles of Horticulture (Exam 1 Review)
Definition: Hortis- “garden”, cultura- “culture”
• Learn only about plants that we either use or eat
Definition- Horticulture is the science and art of producing nutritious food for the body, like fruits nuts and vegetables, and beautiful food for the soul.
• Horticulture crops are more labor intensive
• Discipline of *range management* plans, mesquite trees, grass not horticulture plants. Cotton is a discipline of *agronomy* is not a horticulture crop. We don’t eat them,
• Horticulture crop examples, tomatoes, cacti using as a plant at home, azalas, hedges or shrubs, peach trees, apple trees, medical marijuana, turf grass used in a yard, or any plant used in your landscape.
• Acre of cotton vs. acre of geraniums in a garden- geraniums are a flowering plant, cotton is a cash crop.
• 1 acre = 43,560 sq ft.
o Selling cotton, as of Friday, cotton is sold for 1$ a pound. Average 700 pounds per acre= 700$ minus bills.
o Selling geraniums, 4 inch. 4 plants in 1 sq foot with no walking room. 75 percent of a greenhouse are plants, 25 is benches and walkways. 174,240 plants fill 1 acre x 75% 130,680 plants and sell for 1$ a plant=130,680$ for 1 acre.
Will you make the full price?
• No, you have to pay for inputs like equipment, water, fertilizer, geraniums require a container unlike cotton and more water and more soil, greenhouse. Lots of labor, each plant has to be managed individually (more intensively managed)
Difference between horticulture and other disciplines- fresh or living materials, other disciplines are processed first eg wheat turned into bread before being sold.
study of grapes for wine production
study of wine or wine making
study of flowering plants
study of fruit and fruit production
study of vegetable and vegetable production
study of managing a greenhouse
study of turf grass, not all grasses.
study of floral arrangements.
study of nursery management, nursery is growing smaller plants outdoors instead of in a greenhouse.
study of trees.
landscape management, using plants in landscape.
interior design w/ plants *ie. hotel lobbies etc.
Using plants for therapy/healing humans
making money off of agriculturally-based attractions *ie. christmas-tree farms/arboretums.
• Came up with the binomial naming system
• Based on sexual parts of the plants
-*ie. peach tree, cotton
-Needle or Awl like leaf
-*ie. cedar, evergreen, pine
-Parallel venation (veins)
-Flower parts in multiples of 3
-One cotyledon (1 seed leaf)
-Vascular bundles scattered (streaks in broken branch)
-only 1 monocot tree known (ginko tree)
Dicots (most plants)
-nettled venation (veins)
-Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5
-vascular bundles in a ring (rings in a broken branch)
-*ie most trees, roses, most plants
-Remain genetically true
-*ie rose, altered to make an improvement like more color, broader leaf etc.
-just add “Cultivar” at the end of the name
-Found in nature
-*ie improvements made in nature
-Apple found in nature called red delicious that was more red and tastier than other apples, not altered by man but by nature.
• Authority sometimes follows species
Abbreviations of scientist who named species
• variety or variety immediately after species *never capitalized*
• ‘Cultivar’ after variety if both are present *first letter capitalized and in single quotes*
• sp. Vs. spp.
Examples: Gledistsia-Genus triacanthos-species inermis-variety ‘Skyline’-Cultivar “honey locus”
Solanum-Genus tuberosum-Species L. “potato”
• eg. Classification Key of Evergreen Trees in Utah
o 1. Leaves scaly like, cones are small, blue and berry like…go to 2
o 1. Leaves needle-like, cones are large and brown.. Go to 3
– 1 growing season (not necessarily 1 year)
– 2 growing seasons, first season is vegetative growth (leaves stems and roots) second growing season reproductive growth (seeds and flowers and fruit if there’s fruit)
3 or more growing seasons, short lived are the shorter-lived perennials, long lived are the longer living like trees.
• Home to photosynthesis
• Contain chlorophyll which make them green, and also cause photosynthisis
• Epidermis- on top and bottom of leaf, for protection
• Spongy Mesophyll- Loosely packed cells resembles a “sponge”
• Palisade Layers- tightly packed cells
• Stomata or stoma- pores or holes in the epidermal layer of the leaf, allows gas exchange water vapor out, carbon dioxide in
• Guard Cells- 1 guard cell is located on each side of the stomata or pore. Responsible for opening and closing that pore.
• Leaf Margins- outer edge (margins of paper is outer edge)
• Leaf Arrangements- how the leaves are positioned on a stem
• Leaf Tips- Part furthest away from the petiole (leaf stem)
• Simple or Compound leaf
• Cell wall- provides structure
• Nucleus- “brain of cell” houses DNA
• Mitochondria-Home to respiration
• Primary component of cell walls
• Energy storage
o Glucose, sucrose, starch
• Hydrophilic end- water repelling
• Hydrophobic end- water loving
• Phospholipids- have a stomata,
• 2nd most abundant
o Enzymes-type of protein
• Catalysts- enzymes that speed up a reaction (not all enzymes are catalysts)
o Makes us what we are
o Translated into proteins
• Nucleus- “brain of cell” DNA stored here
• Disease resistance
• Add texture
• Softer flavors
• Add texture
• Bitter flavor
• Plant manufactured substances that are not a vitamin or nutrient, but for various reasons they have a health benefit to us.
• Plants serve as energy for all living things
• Plants turn kinetic energy into potential energy and then into kinetic energy again.
-Must have chlorophyll
-Must have light
-mostly effective w/ red and blue
o Contain membrane layers full of chlorophyll
o Chlorophyll b transfers energy to chlorophyll a
o 2 forms of chlorophyll a
o Responsible for trapping light for Photosynthesis
phloem-plant manufactured chemicals
secondary-girth (outward growth) in dicots (dicot, netted venation, 4 5 plant parts, 2 cotyledons)
Stolon-generally above ground, usually thin, used as runners for plant cloning