Practice scenarios for AP Psych Unit 1 Test

Jill wants to study the process of thinking. Which field of psychology should she choose?
A) Cognitive psychology is the study of how we process,store, and retrieve information.

B and C are devoted to studying the way people relate to others and the unique attributes of a person. neither field focuses on one’s thought process. D deals with long-lasting changes in behavior, usually through experience. E is the experience of a meaningful pattern of a stimulus

I believe people choose to live meaningful lives. I share many of the same beliefs as Carl Rogers. Most important, I believe many people have the ability to reach self-actualization. Who am I?
C) Abraham Maslow is a humanist. The humanist approach emphasizes that each individual has free will to determine his or her own future. Self-actualization is an inherent tendency to reach our true potential.

Of the following who is associated with the Gestalt school of psychology?
A)John Watson
B)William James
C)Ivan Pavlov
D)Max Wertheimer
E)Sigmund Freud
D)Wertheimer, along with Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka, studied the illusion of flashing lights and the perception of movement. Wertheimer argued that perceptual experiences, such as flashing lights, resulted from a “whole pattern” or, in German, “Gestalt”.

Which of the following psychologists wrote The Principles of Psychology?
A)William James
B)Wilhelm Wundt
C)John Watson
D)Sigmund Freud
E)Max Wertheimer
A)William James wrote the Principles of Psychology, published in 1890. This book included the study of the mind, sensation, memory and reasoning. James is associated with functionalism.

Not B because Wundt is associated with structuralism. Not C because Watson is associated with behaviorism.
Not D because Freud is associated with psychoanalysis. Not E because Wertheimer is associated with Gestalt.

Psychology is considered a science mainly because it relies on direct observation. Which field of psychology supports this?
B)Psychodynamic psychology
C)Social psychology
D)Cognitive psychology
A)John Watson published a paper called “Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It”. Watson rejected the notion that introspection can be used as a technique to determine the behavior of human beings. Watson believed psychology needed to be an objective experimental science.

Unlike choices B, C, D and E, behaviorism was the first field to study psychology in an observable and measurable manner.

Which of the following best defines eclectic psychology?
A)The study of animal instinct
B)The study of child development
C)The study of abnormal behavior
D)The study of a variety of theories within the field
E)The study of the human brain and the central nervous system
D)The definition of the eclectic approach is a combination of techniques and ideas from many different schools of thought in psychology.

Psychoanalytic psychology focuses mainly on
A)rewards and punishments
B)Self-esteem and self-actualization
C)Biology and genetics
D)Internal conflict and unconscious desires
E)Sensation and Perception
D)The psychoanalytic approach focuses on the idea that each of us has an unconscious that contains thoughts, desires, and fears that have been hidden or repressed because they threaten our conscious self.

A, rewards and punishments, is based on behaviorism. B self esteem and self-actualization, is based on humanism.

One major criticism of Ivan Pavlov’s concept of classical conditioning was that:
A)it did not take into account voluntary human behavior
B)It was unethical to use dogs in a psychology experiment
C)It did not take into account involuntary behavior
D)The findings overlapped with other fields of psychology
E)It did not relate to human behavior
A)In Pavlov’s experiment in which he rang a bell before putting food in the dog’s mouths, the dogs eventually paired the bell with salivating, even when the food was not present. This phenomenon, which Pavlov called conditioned reflex, eventually became known as classical conditioning. Because this theory was based on involuntary reflexes and many psychologist believe human behavior is based on voluntary choices, they criticized classical conditioning, claiming it could not help us any further understand human behavior.

This explanation negates choice C. D and E are irrelevant to this question.

which of the following psychologists was a structuralist?
A)John Watson
B)Wilhelm Wundt
C)William James
D)Max Wertheimer
E)Sigmund Freud
B) Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory in 1879. Structuralism is the study of the most basic elements in our conscious minds.

John Watson was behaviorist
William James studied functionalism
Max Wertheimer studied Gestalt
Sigmund Freud studied psychoanalysis

The use of rewards, punishments, and positive reinforcement is an example of which field of psychology?
B)The behavioral approach analyzes how organisms learn or modify behavior based on rewards and punishments in the environment. The other choices do not specifically focus on reinforcements in one’s environment.

” Give me a dozen healthy infants and my own special world to bring the up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist.. lawyer, doctor…” what psychological approach would support this statement?
D)The behavioral approach emphasizes the objective, scientific analysis of observable behavior. This includes conditioning human behavior.

Choice A focuses on an individual’s thought process or perception. Choices B and C were both schools of thought that focused on introspection. Psychoanalysis emphasized the strength of the unconscious.

Who was considered the father of psychology?
B)Wilhelm Wundt is considered the father of psychology. Wundt established the first psychological laboratory n 1879.

One major differences between structuralism and functionalism is:
A)Structuralists analyze all mental elements, while functionalists analyze only some elements.
B)Structuralists believe all behaviors stem from the evolutionary process.
C)Structuralists wish to divide the mind into mental elements while functionalists believe behavior helps an organism adapt to the environment
D)Only functionalists believe n the importance of introspection
E)Structuralists try to manipulate the mind in order to understand behavior, while functionalists study the conscious mind to understand behavior.
C)Structuralism was influenced by the physical scientists of the time. Wundt emphasized that all complex substances could be separated into component elements, whereas functionalists examined behaviors from a different point of view. Functionalists were asking what the mind does and why. Choice C best exemplifies these concepts

A is too vague and inaccurate to be the correct answer. B does not represent either structuralism or functionalism. D is incorrect because both structuralism and functionalism used introspection as a means of determining human behavior. Once again, choice E is not using accurate information to define either structuralism or functionalism.

The idea that psychology is not based on scientific fact or human shortcomings but instead should focus on human experience is the basis for which psychological approach.
A)Cognitive psychology
E)The basis of humanism is the understanding that individuals have free will and a large capacity for reaching their potential. It is the human experience that we all share that enables individuals to attain such goals

A is not correct because it focuses on the process of thinking, perception and attention to details of language and problem-solving. Cognition does not emphasize the human experience. B is incorrect because it focuses on complex mental elements. C is incorrect because it is based on relationships, stimulus-response, and rewards and punishments. D is incorrect because they examined mental processes, not human experience.

Clients who work for their therapists to explore their past to discover the source of their illness would be seeking what type of therapy?
A)Psychoanalysis stresses the importance of the patient and psychologist working together to explore the client’s past.

B is incorrect because humanism emphasizes one’s present and future, not one’s past. C is incorrect because it works on changing the client’s way of thinking, again not placing much emphasis on the past. D is incorrect because it simply means using several different approaches of psychology. E is incorrect because it tries to identify negative behaviors and eliminate the through such means as systematic desensitization.

Psychodynamic psychology focuses mainly on which of the following?
A)Free will and self-actualization
B)Experiments in controlled settings
C)The collective unconscious
D)Thoughts, impulses and desires beyond the conscious being
E)Practical introspection
D) Psychodynamic psychology stresses the influence of the unconscious. It fears, impulses, and desires motivate our conscious behavior.

Choice A, free will and self actualization, refers to humanism. B refers to experimental psychology. C refers to part of Carl Jung’s theory of personality development.

A developmental psychologist focuses mainly on:
A)The conscious experiences of an infant
B)The manner in which a child develops the ability to speak, learn and understand the world around him or her
C)The mental process that helps a young person adapt to his or her environment
D)The identification of one’s environment and response to the environment
E)Experiments that emphasize actual behavior, rather than controlled settings
B) Developmental psychologists study a person’s biological, emotional, cognitive and social development across the life span.

Choice A is too vague to be the correct answer. C is incorrect because mental process refers to cognitive psychology, not developmental psychology. D and E are incorrect because they do not answer the question.

Phenomenology is best defined as
A)The study of natural, unanalyzed behavior
B)The process of thinking and memory
C)The study of psychological mental health
D)The study of language and development
E)The process of consistent patterns and organized sets.
Choice A is the definition of phenomenology , the study of natural, unanalyzed perception

The term biological psychology is concerned with
A)Aggression and sexual behavior
B)Depression and anxiety
C)Genetics and the nervous system
D)Social anxiety
E)Drug treatment
C) Biological psychologists focus on the ways changes in an organisms physical makeup can affect behavior, relating directly to genetics and the nervous system.

Choices B and D are incorrect because biological psychologists do not study the mind or life experiences. Choice E may appear to be correct, but the question is asking what the term biological psychology refers to, which is not drug treatment.

A case study is
A)A primary tool for investigation into a client’s unconscious through dream analysis and free association
B) A study done over an entire life span of one individual, giving the psychologist detailed information of one’s psyche
C)A study that exposes the subject to some event and measures coping skills
D)An independent study used outside the natural environment of the subject
E)A comparative study of various people of different ages at the same time.
Choice is the definition for a case study.

Choice B defines a longitudinal study. Choice E defines a cross-sectional study. Choices C and D do not define any type of study.

Which of the following research methods does not permit researchers to draw conclusions regarding cause-and-effect relationships?
A)Experimental research
C)Case studies
D)Correlation research
E)Naturalistic observations
D) a correlation expresses a relationship between two variables without ascribing cause. Correlation research employs statistical methods to examine a relationship between two or more variables, but does not permit researchers to draw conclusions.

Unlike correlation research, experimental research offers the opportunity to draw conclusions because of the strict control of variables.

A random sample can best be defined as
A) A sample in which each potential participant has an equal chance of being selected
B)A sample that is carefully chosen so the characteristics of participants correspond to the larger population
C)A selection of cases from a larger population
D)A selection of cases from the control group
E)A sample of a larger population from the experimental group
A) A random sample is defined as a sample in which each potential participant has an equal chance of selection.

Choices B defines representative sample. Choice C defines the term sample, not random sample. Choices D and E do not accurately define random sample.

The Hawthorne effect is best defined as
A)Expectations by the experimenter that can influence the results of an experiment
B)The change in the results of an experiment when it is “blind” versus “double blind”
C)The idea that people will alter their behavior because of the researcher’s attention and not because of actual treatment
D)Specific, testable predictions derived from a theory
E)The idea that subjects in an experiment will lie if the researcher tells them to.
C) While researchers were testing the hypothesis that better lighting would boost worker output in the 1920s, they were surprised to see their results showed something else entirely. Productivity increased regardless of lighting merely because of the researcher’s attention and not factory conditions.

Choice A is incorrect because the Hawthorne effect focuses on the researcher’s attention, not expectations. Choice B refers to the researcher’s bias and change of behavior, not the subject’s.

Dr. Bisell conducts an experiment to see whether hunger makes mice run faster through a maze. He randomly assigns 25 mice to a control group or an experimental group. Which cannot be a confounding variable?
A)Where the experiment takes place
B)How hungry the mice were before the experiment
C)How fast the mice are before the race
D)When the experiment takes place
E)The population from which he selected the mice
E) A confounding variable is anything that differs between the control group and the experimental group besides the independent variable. How fast and hungry the mice are at the beginning of the experiment are potential confounding variables that can potentially change the findings of this experiment. The population from which the mice were selected cannot be a confounding variable. This will not differ for the two groups. All of the mice were chosen from the same larger population. Even if this larger population is flawed, it is not considered a confounding variable

Marc, a psychology major, collected survey data about the number of hours that college students study for their finals and their grades on those finals. His data indicates that student who spend more time studying for finals tend to do better than other students. What can Marc conclude now?
A)Studying improves a student’s grade on a final exam
B)A relationship exists between studying and exam grades
C)A significant relationship exists between studying and grades
D)Students who do not study for final exams will not do well on those exams
E)Students with higher IQs tend to study more than those with lower IQs
B) Marc has established a relationship. Marc did not conduct an experiment; therefore, he cannot draw any conclusions. Marc has found a correlation between studying and performance on a final exam; whether or not it is significant would require the use of inferential statistics.

Jordan runs an experiment testing the effects of sugar consumption on aggression levels in children. He randomly assigns 20 subjects either to a control group given sugar-free candy or to the experimental group that was given the same candy that did contain sugar. He then tests the subject’s response to several different puzzles, each with increasing difficulty. Jordan hypothesizes that sugar levels do play a role in aggression in children. In order to know whether his hypothesis has been supported, Jordan will need to use:
A)Descriptive statistics
B)Means-to-end statistics
C)Experimental research
D)Scatter plots
E)Inferential statistics
E)Jordan would need to use inferential statistics to determine whether the experimental group’s aggression levels were significantly different. Jordan could very well use descriptive statistics, but not before he determines whether his hypothesis has been supported and represents the larger population.

Which of the following coefficients of a correlation indicate the weakest relationship between two variables?
C)Correlational research allows the researcher to determine whether a relationship exists between two variables. A positive correlation means that high scores on one variable tend to be paired with high scores on the other variable. A number between -1 and +1 expresses the strength of the correlation. A negative correlation means that high scores on one variable tend to be paired with low scores on the other variable. The number 0 denotes the weakest possible correlation or no correlation at all.

The observation in a classroom that the higher the room temperature, the lower student performance would be an example of
A)Negative correlation
B)Zero correlation
C)Positive correlation
D)Independent correlation
E)Dependent correlation
A)A negative correlation is expressed as -1. This means that as one variable goes up, the other variable will go down. In this case, as the room temperature went up, the student performance went down, indicating a negative correlation.

In an experiment, Sydney is going to investigate how alcohol affects aggression. The number of alcoholic drinks the subject has is called
A)Controlled variable
B)Independent variable
C)Dependent variable
D)Experimental variable
E)Positive variable
B)The independent variable in the experiment is the variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the other, dependent variables. In this experiment, the manipulation of the number of alcoholic drinks given to the subjects will affect their levels of aggression. The dependent variable in the experiment is measured to see how it is changed from the manipulation of the independent variable.

If a researcher is trying to establish a casual relationship between eating breakfast and work performance, the researcher should use which of the following methods of research?
A)Case study
B)Correlational research
C)Experimental research
C)With experimental research the strict control of variables offers the researcher the opportunity to draw conclusions about cause-and-effect relationships. In this instance, if the researcher wants to establish a casual relationship between eating breakfast and work performance, experimental research must be used.

Correlational research does not allow the researcher to draw conclusions. Surveys simply allow the researcher to gather an immense amount of data in a short period of time.

Which of the following psychologists started the first psychology lab in Germany?
A)William James
B)Wilhelm Wundt
C)John B. Watson
D)Ivan Pavlov
E)Sigmund Freud
B)Wilhelm Wundt
Though there is some dispute in the literature, Wundt is credited by most as starting the first lab in psychology in 1879. This is mostly because Wundt began training his first graduate student that year.

Of the following approaches to understanding behavior, which is most likely going to focus on the way that adults process information?
The cognitive approach would most likely look at how adults process information. It attempts to understand human behavior by examining the ways that people process information in order to deal with the stimuli they encounter in the world.

Which philosopher discussed the mind-body problem?
Rene Descartes was very concerned with the mind-body problem. In fact, it consumed much of his energy as he tried to wrestle with this debate. The issue, by the way, continues to be of interest to psychologists.

What is the difference between cognitive psychology and behavioral psychology?
A)Behavioral psychology deals with reinforcement and punishment, while cognitive psychology deals with information processing
B)Cognitive psychology focuses only on observable behavior, while behavioral psychology focuses on internal processes
C)Both focus on observable behavior; there is no difference
D)Cognitive psychology focuses only on the ego, while behavioral focuses on the id
E)Behavioral psychology focuses on the superego, while cognitive psychology focuses on the ego
A)Behavioral psychology deals with reinforcement and punishment, while cognitive psychology deals with information processing.
Note the similarity among the answer choices; this is a common format on the AP exam, so be careful that you are selecting the one that you intend

Of the following approaches to psychology, which area would be most concerned with the idea that people strive toward self-actualization?
Humanistic psychologists would be concerned with the idea that people strive toward self-actualization. In fact, they state the development of self-actualization as a goal of human behavior.

Which of the following approaches to psychology is most likely to have a paper entitled, “The role of the endocrine system as a secondary transmitter”?
“The role of the endocrine system as a secondary transmitter” is a biological process of the endocrine system. Therefore, the only appropriate type of psychology would be biological psychology.

In early psychology, Wilhelm Wundt developed a technique for doing research that involved having people describe their thoughts as they observed an object. This technique is called.
A)Dream analysis
B)Mind/body analysis
C)Behavior analysis
All the areas mentioned are valid in psychology. The key is to know that Wundt’s early approach was most concerned with determining the STRUCTURE of consciousness. To do that, people had to describe their consciousness. That is introspection.

Watson and Skinner both believed that _______ was the biggest predictor of future action.
A)Inborn tendencies
Both Watson and Skinner were behaviorists and as such, were concerned with understanding the roe of the environment on behavior. They, like Locke, believed that children are born with no knowledge and all they know is acquired from the environment.

The paper “The role of imagery in memory processes” would most likely be written by someone who subscribes to
A)Biological psychology
B)Cognitive psychology
C)Social/Cultural psychology
D)Psychodynamic psychology
E)Humanistic psychology
B)Cognitive psychology
“The role of imagery in memory processes” would be written by a cognitive psychologist. The definition of the cognitive approach centers on the notion that to understand behavior we need to understand the way humans process information. Memory is one of the key concepts in this area.

The person who is most responsible for developing the school of thought called functionalism?
William James and Wilhelm Wundt disagreed on how to study humans. Wundt believed we should study the structure of consciousness while James believed we should study the function. Hence, his area is called functionalism.

The psychologist who trained with Wundt and traveled to the United States to set up one of the first labs at Cornell University is
Titchener was one of Wundt’ most famous students and he was enormously influential in developing a lab at Cornell. this is one of those questions you just have to know.

Those who believe that the key to understanding behavior is to understand the role of the environment in shaping organisms are called
A)Cognitive psychologists
B)Humanistic psychologists
C)Biological psychologists
D)Developmental psychologists
E)Behavioral psychologists
E)Behavioral psychologists
This is a tough question. All of the mentioned areas of psychology are concerned with the environment, yet behavioral psychologists are most concerned with it. They argue that nothing else influences behavior the way the environment.

Humanistic psychology has recently been “rediscovered” and is now a popular approach to understanding behavior. This area is now called
A)Cognitive psychology
B)Developmental psychology
C)Positive psychology
D)Behavioral psychology
E)Biological psychology
C)Positive psychology
Positive psychology has emerged recently as a reconceptualization of humanism.

According to operant conditioning, the _______ of behavior are the best predictor of whether or not that behavior is performed again.
According to operant conditioning, the consequences of behavior are the biggest predictors of whether or not a behavior reoccurs. If we do not control the consequences, we do not control behavior.

Which of the following approaches focuses on free will and consciousness?
Humanists are concerned with free will, while the other areas of psychology do not emphasize it or do not believe it exists.

The psychoanalytic approach to understanding personality was described?
Freud’s approach was groundbreaking in that he attempted to explain all of human behavior using one unifying theory.

Which philosopher is responsible for the concept of Tabula Rasa?
Locke is famous for many of his thoughts, though he is most well-known for arguing one thing-that people are born as blank slates, and experience is written on them. That, then, goes on to determining behavior.

Which area of psychology is most concerned with understanding the internal works of the “mind” such as memory and thought?
Cognitive psychologists argue that by using creative research techniques, we can study memory well.

Both Plato and Socrates saw knowledge as
Plato and Socrates were both nativists and argued that we are born with all the knowledge that we need. We spend our lives trying to “discover” what we already know.

The idea that fear could be learned is based on the work of
Watson and Rayner designed a study to demonstrate that children learn “fear” from a variety of experiences they have when they are young.

Which of the following statements best captures Freud’s point of view about personality?
A)Personality is the result of our reinforcement history
B)Personality is learned from our parents by being around them
C)Personality is the result of our shared evolutionary history with all those that came before us
E)Personality is the result of unconscious drives or conflicts that we need to resolve
E)Personality is the result of unconscious drives or conflicts that we need to resolve.
Freud believed that personality is formed fro the unconscious drives or conflicts we need to resolve. Someone who subscribed to learning theory would say that it is formed from our reinforcement history, and someone who subscribed to trait theories would say it is formed by being around our parents

“Our personality is nothing more than acquired habits that we learned through our experience”. what theory would support this statement?
A learning theorist would believe this statement. He would believe that we are born as a blank slate. Experience is the key. Trait theorists believe we are born with traits form our parents; psychodynamic theorists believe that we carry trauma from birth in our conscious; cognitive theorists are also called trait theorists; and humanistic psychologists believe that we are all born inherently good.

The approach of personality championed by Carl Rogers is called
Rogers championed the humanistic approach of personality. Learning perspective is similar to the theory of Skinner; trait theory is associated with Kelley; and neo-Freudians are psychologists like Carl Jung.

Carl Rogers is often classified as a _____ theorist
Rogers believed we are born as good, capable, caring people, and when we experience anxiety, we need to be reminded of that. People strive toward perfection and much of our behavior is designed toward the goal of self-actualization. This describes humanistic psychology.

During the _______ stage of Freud’s theory, the focus is on controlling one’s environment.
B)During the anal stage, children learn that much of their behavior is out of their control. However, potty training helps them to realize that there are some behaviors that they can control. A child who becomes anal retentive will eventually become a very controlling adult.

You have to decide what you are going to do with your life. To do this, you decide to flip a coin. Based on the results of the flip, you decide to go to college. Such a behavior could be explained by looking at your past behaviors and seeing if you have been rewarded for such behavior before. What perspective of personality does this example illustrate?
The use of the word REWARDED should be the clue. Learning theorists argue that we learn behavior patterns by what has essentially worked in the past. If we have been rewarded for a behavior in the past, we are likely to repeat that behavior in the future.

The humanistic approach to personality makes which of the following claims?
A)We are all inherently good
B)We are all inherently bad
C)We are born a blank
D)We are born with genes that determine who we become
E)We are born with genes that give us potential, but our experience really determines who we become
The humanistic theory claims that we are all inherently good. That we are inherently bad is not a perspective held by psychologists. That we are born with genes that give us potential only is a belief that was held by many developmental psychologists who subscribe to the theory of behavior genetics.

Humanistic psychologists see people as inherently good. They believe that people are trying to reach their potential at all times . This is a process called
C)Performance enhancement
D)Levels of processing
E)General adaptation syndrome
the term used by Rogers and others is self-actualization. This idea that we are striving toward perfection. The other terms are not used in personality psychology

According to a learning perspective, the most important determinant of how we behave in any given situation is our.
A)Previous learning history
C)The traits we have
D)Need for achievement
E)Socialization needs
According to learning theory, we are products of our environment. We act the way we do because in the past, we were reinforced for certain behaviors, and punished (or not reinforced) for competing behaviors.

A proponent of learning theory might be
Skinner could be considered a proponent of learning theory. Freud supported psychodynamic theory and Jung as well. Rogers and Maslow were both proponents of humanistic/phenomenological theories of personality.

Who would be considered a proponent of the humanistic view of personality?
Rogers supported the humanistic view of personality. Kelley was a proponent of trait theory, and Wundt was not a personality psychologist.

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