Practice exam questions – 1

Flashcard maker : Jessica Forbes
The micro-skills hierarchy provides
Demonstration that alternative settings require different counselling skills.
Interviewing is a critical skill for which of the following professions?
Counsellors and psychologists
Non-attention is useful for:
Shifting clients away from negative topics.
Memories studied via brain scans reveal:
False memories activate different parts of the brain than true memories.
Which are 3 valid elements of observation skills?
Observe yours and the client’s verbal and non-verbal behaviour/ Anticipate individual and multicultural differences./ Carefully and selectively feedback observations to the client as discussion topics.
According to Azara Santiago-Rivera Bilingual clients are
In need of special help.
The first step in eliciting and reflecting feelings is to recognise key emotional words expressed by the client. What is NOT an emotional word?
Considerate
What does emphasising the positive asset search do for a client:
Gives the client a sense of personal power in the interview.
What is confrontation:
A complex of skills requiring observation and listening.
What is NOT true of mutuality focus?
Mutuality is not a legitimate focus area.
What, if any, is the difference between interpretation and re-frame?,
Both focus on providing a new way of thinking for the client.
What are elements of appropriate interviewer self-disclosure
Related past personal life experience of the interviewer./ Interviewer observations, opinions, or feelings toward the client./ Begins with an \”I\” statement.
The simplest problem-solving model is:
Define the problem, generate alternatives, choose to act on one alternative.
The basic listening sequence (BLS) is a key counsellor action in Story and Strengths
Stage 2 of the five-stage interview structure, in which of the following theories?, Brief Counselling
There are two major factors to consider as you integrate the many available theories and identify your own personal style. They are /and the
Interviewer education/ genuineness of the client
Ethics definition
Observe and follow professional standards and practice ethically.
Particularly important issues for beginning interviewers are: competence, informed consent, confidentiality, power, and social justice.
Ethics predicted result
Client trust and understanding of the interviewing process will increase.
Clients will feel more empowered in a more egalitarian session.
When you work toward social justice, you contribute to problem prevention in addition to healing work in the interview.
multicultural competence definition
Base interviewer behaviour on an ethical approach with an awareness of the many issues of diversity. Include the multiple dimensions from the RESPECTFUL model.
multicultural competence predicted result
Both counsellor and clients will appreciate, gain respect, and learn from increasing knowledge in ethics and multicultural competence.
The counsellor will have a solid foundation for a lifetime of personal and professional growth
RESPECTFUL model
Religion/spirituality, Economic/class background, Sexual identity, Personal style and education, Ethnic/racial identity, Chronological/ lifespan challenges, Trauma, Family background, Unique physical characteristics, Location of residence/ language difference
wellness definition
Help clients discover and rediscover their strengths through wellness assessment. Find strengths and positive assets in the clients and in their support system. Identify multiple dimensions of wellness
Wellness predicted result
Clients who are aware of their strengths and resources can face their difficulties and discuss problem resolution from a positive foundation
Attending behaviour definition
Support your client with individually and culturally appropriate visuals, vocal quality, verbal tracking, and body language
Attending behaviour predicted result
Clients will talk more freely and respond openly, particularly around topics to which attention is given
Depending on the individual, clients will make fewer eye contact breaks, a smoother vocal tone, and a more complete story (fewer topic jumps), and more comfortable body language.
open and closed questions definiton
Begin open questions with often usual who, what, when, where, why. Closed questions may start with do, is, or are. Could, can, or would questions are considered open, but have the additional advantage of being somewhat closed, thus giving more power to the client, who can more easily say that he or she doesn’t want to respond.
open and closed questions predicted result
Clients will give more detail and talk more in response to open questions.
Closed questions provide specific information but may close off client talk.
Effective questions encourage more focused client conversations with more pertinent detail and less wandering. Could, would, and can questions are often the most open of all.
client observation skills definition
Observe yours and the client’s verbal and non-verbal behaviour. Anticipate individual and multi-cultural differences in non-verbal and verbal behaviour. Carefully and selectively feed observations back to the client as topics for discussion.
client observation skills predicted result
Observations provide specific data validating or invalidating what is happening in the session and provide guidance for use of various micro-skills and strategies.
The smoothly flowing interview will often demonstrate movement symmetry or complementarity. Movement dissynchrony provides a clear clue that you are not \”in tune\” with the client.
encouraging definition
Encourage with short responses the help clients keep talking. They may be verbal (repeating key works and short statements) or non-verbal (head nods and smiling)
encouraging predicted result
Clients will elaborate on the topic, particularly when encouragers and restatements are used in a questioning tone of voice.
paraphrasing definition
Shorten, clarify the essence of what has been said, but be sure to use the client’s main words when you paraphrase. Paraphrases are often fed back to the client in a questioning tone of voice.
paraphrasing predicted result
Clients will feel heard. They will tend to give more detail without repeating the exact same story. If a paraphrase is inaccurate, clients will have an opportunity to correct the counsellor.
summarising definition
Summarise client comments and integrative thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. Similar to paraphrase but used over a longer time span.
summarising predicted result
Clients will feel heard and often learn how the many parts of important stories are integrated. The summary tends to facilitate a more centred and focused discussion. The summary also provides a more coherent transition from one topic to the next or as a way to begin and end a full session.
empathic response definition
Experience the client’s world as if you were the client. Understand his or her key issues and feed them back to clarify experience. This requires attending skills and using the important key words of the client but distilling and shortening the main ideas. Empathy is best assessed by the client’s reaction to a statement.
empathic response predicted result
Clients will feel understood and engage in more depth in exploring their issues.
subtractive empathy definition
Interviewer responses give back to the client less than what the client says and perhaps even distort what has been said. In this case, the listening or influencing skills are used inappropriately.
subtractive empathy predicted response
Skill is used inappropriately and subtracts from client’s experience. Clients will not feel understood.
basic empathy definition
Interviewer responses are roughly interchangeable with those of the client. The interviewer is able to say back accurately what the client has said.
basic empathy predicted response
Clients will feel understood and engage in more depth and exploring their issues. Skilled intentional competence with the basic listening sequence demonstrates basic empathy.
additive empathy definition
Interviewer adds meaning and feelings beyond those originally expressed by client.
additive empathy predicted response
Clients will reach a better understanding of their own issues and engage in more depth in exploring these issues.
reflection of feeling definition
Identify key emotions of a client and feed them back to clarify affective experience. With some clients, the brief acknowledgement of feeling may be more appropriate. Often combined with paraphrasing and summarising.
reflection of feeling predicted response
Clients will experience and understand their emotional state more fully and talk in more depth about feelings. They may correct the interviewer’s reflection with a more accurate descriptor.
basic listening sequence definition
Select and practice all elements of the basic listening sequence – open and closed questions, encouraging, paraphrasing, reflection of feeling, and summarising. These are supplemented by attending behaviour and client observation skills.
basic listening sequence predicted response
Clients will discuss their stories, problems, or concerns, including the key facts, thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Clients will feel their stories have been heard.
5 stage interview – relationship definition
Initiate the session. Rapport and structuring. \”Hello, what would you like to talk about today?\”
5S.I. relationship predicted response
Clients will feel at ease with an understanding of the key ethical issues and the purpose of the interview. They may also know you more completely as a person and professional.
5SI – story and strengths definition
Gather data, draw out client’s stories, concerns, problems or issues. \”What’s your concern?\” \”What are your strengths and resources?\”
5SI – story and strengths predicted response
Clients will share thoughts, feelings, behaviours, and their stories in detail as well as strengths and resources.
5SI – goals definition
Set goals mutually. \”What do you want to happen?\”
5SI – goals predicted outcome
Clients will discuss and define goals, new ways of thinking, desired feeling states, and desired behaviour changes. They may learn how to live more effectively with situations that cannot be changed (rape, death, an accident, an illness).
5SI – restory definition
Explore and create, brainstorm and examine alternatives, confront client incongruities and conflict, restory. \”What are we going to do about it\” \”Can we generate new ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving?\”
5SI – restory predicted outcome
Clients may re-examine individual goals in new ways, solve problems from at least generated alternatives, and start the move towards new stories and actions
5SI – action definition
Conclude, plan for generalising interview learning to ‘real life’ and eventual termination of the interview and series of sessions (\”will you do it?\”)
5SI – action predicted outcome
Clients will demonstrate change in behaviour, thoughts, and feelings in daily life outside the interview.
Confrontation definition
Supportively challenge the client:
1. Listen, observe, and note client conflict, mixed messages, and discrepancies in verbal and non-verbal behaviour.
2. Point out external and internal discrepancies by feeding them back to the client, usually through the listening skills.
3. Evaluate how the client responds whether it leads to client movement or change.
If the client does not change, the interviewer flexes intentionally and tries another skill.
confrontation predicted response
Clients will respond to the confrontation of discrepancies and conflict with new ideas, thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, and these will be measurable on the 5-point Client Change Scale. Again, if no change occurs, listen. T en try an alternative style of confrontation.
focusing definition
Use selective attention and focus the interview on the client, problem/concern, significant others (partner/spouse, family, friends), a mutual \”we\” focus, the interviewer, or the cultural/environmental context (RESPECTFUL). You may also focus on what is going on in the here and now of the interview.
focusing predicted response
Clients will focus their conversation or story on the dimensions selected by the interviewer. As the interviewer brings in new focuses, the story is elaborated from multiple perspectives.
reflection of meaning definition
Meanings are close to core experiencing. Encourage clients to explore their own meanings and values in more depth from their own perspective. Questions to elicit meaning are often a vital first step. A reflection of meaning looks very much like a paraphrase, but focuses beyond what a client says. Often the words \”meaning\”, \”values\”, and \”goals\” appear in the discussion.
reflection of meaning predicted response
The client will find another perspective or meaning of a story, issue, or problem. The new perspective could be generated by a theory used by the interviewer, from linking ideas or information, or by simply looking at the situation afresh.
interpretation/reframe definition
Provide the client with a new perspective, frame of reference or way of thinking about issues. Interpretations/reframes may come from your observations, they may be based on varying theoretical orientations to the helping field, or they may link critical ideas together.
interpretation/reframe predicted response
The client may find another perspective or meaning of a story, issue, or problem. The new perspective could have generated by a theory used by the interviewer, from linking ideas or information, or by simply looking at the situation afresh.
self-disclosure definition
As the interviewer, share your own related past personal life experience, here-and-now observations or feelings towards the client, or opinions about the future. Self-disclosure often starts with an \”I\” statement. Here-and-now feelings toward the client can be powerful and should be used carefully.
self-disclosure predicted response
The client is encouraged to self-disclose in more depth and may develop a more egalitarian interviewing relationship with the interviewer. The client may feel more comfortable in the relationship and find a new solution relating to the counsellor’s self-disclosure.
feedback definition
Present the client with clear information on how interviewer believes the client is thinking, feeling, or behaving and how significant others may view them or their performance.
feedback predicted reponse
Clients may improve or change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours based on the interviewer’s feedback.
logical consequences definition
Explore specific alternatives and the logical positive and negative concrete consequence of each possibility with the client. \”if you do this…, then….\”
logical consequences predicted response
Clients may change thoughts, feelings, and behaviours through better anticipation of the consequences of their actions. Through exploring the positives and negatives of each possibility, the client is more involved in the process of decision making.
information and psychoeducation definition
Share specific information with the client (e.g., career information, choice of major, where to go for community assistance and services). Offer advice or opinions on how to resolve issues and provide useful suggestions for personal change. Teach the clients specifics that may be useful – helping them develop a wellness plan, teaching them how to use micro-skills in interpersonal relationships, educating them on multicultural issues and discrimination.
education and psychoeducation predicted response
If information and ideas are given sparingly and effectively, clients will use them to act in new, more positive ways. Psycho-education that is provided in a timely way and involves clients in the process can be a powerful motivator for change.
directives definition
Direct clients to follow specific actions. Directives are important in broader strategies such as assertiveness or social skills training or specific exercises such as imagery, thought stopping, journaling, or relaxation training. They are often important when assigning homework for the client.
directives predicted response
Clients will make positive progress when they listen to and follow the directives and engage in new, more positive thinking, feeling, or behaving.
skill integration definition
Integrate the micro-skills into a well-formed interview and generalise the skills to situations beyond the training session or classroom.
skill integration predicted response
Developing counsellors will integrate skills as part of their natural style. Each of us will vary in our choices, but increasingly we will know what we are doing, how to flex when what we are doing is ineffective, and what to expect in the interview as a result of our efforts.
determining personal style and theory definition
As you work with clients, identify your natural style, add to it, and think through your approach to interviewing and counselling. Examine your own preferred skill usage and what you do in a session. Integrate learning from theory and practice in interviewing, counselling, and psychotherapy into your own skill set.
determining personal style and theory predicted response
As a developing counsellor, you will identify and build on your natural style. You will commit to a lifelong process of constantly learning about theory and practice while evaluating and examining your behaviour, thoughts, feelings, and deeply held meanings.
Basic listening sequence (def):
draw out the client’s story and strengths via questioning, encouraging, paraphrasing, reflection of feeling, and summarisation. The sequence used in multiple settings, not just in interviewing and counselling.
Client-change scale (CCS) def
helps you evaluate where the client is in the change process.
what are the 5 levels in the change process:
1. Denial 2. Partial examination 3. Acceptance and recognition but no change 4. Generation of a new solution 5. Transcendence.
what is the Predicted result of CCS:
you will be able to determine the impact of your use of skills and the creation of the new. Suggest new ways that you might try to clarify and support the change process through more confrontation or the use of another skill that might facilitate growth and development.
what is the creative ‘new’:
this is a more poetic and positive way to describe the human growth process. Change is a creative action. Tillich’s concept of the new helps make confrontation and change more fluid and strength producing.
how to recognise Confrontation and change strategies:
an explicit confrontation can be recognised by the model sentences, \”on one hand… but on the other hand… how do you put those two together?\” in addition, many interviewer statements contain implicit confrontations that can be helpful in promoting client growth and development movement. For example, you may summarise client conversation, pointing out discrepancies, or use an influencing skill such as the interpretation/reframe, feedback, or other strategies to produce change.
what is the Death and dying a change model used for:
seeking to help our clients change their ways of thinking and behaving.
Clients often work through 5 identifiable strategies as they change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, what are they?
1. Denial 2. Partial acceptance of reality/bargaining/ anger 3. Acceptance and recognition 4. Generation of a new solution and 5. Development of a new, larger, and more inclusive constructs, patterns, or behaviours.
Importance of observation skills
they are a critical tool in determining how the client interprets the world. it allows you to see your impact on the client. Use these data to adjust your microskill or interviewing technique.
What is focusing:
A skill that facilitates multiple telling of a client story to help find new creative views for re-storying.
What are focusing’s functions:
Stresses the importance of the individual client/ Expands awareness of social/ contexts
What is the importance of genograms in focusing:
They outline the client’s social connections
\”1 -2-3\” pattern:
In any interaction with a client, first attend to and determine the client’s frame of reference, then assess her or his reaction before using your influencing skills. Finally, check out the client reaction to your use of the skill.
define Interpersonal influence continuum:
The influencing and attending skill may be classified from low to high degrees of influence. Encouragers and paraphrasing are considered relatively low in influence, whereas confrontation and directives are considered more influential.
define Moderate triad:
The \”swing skills\” of the interpersonal influence continuum are focusing and open and closed questions. They provide a framework for determining the topic of conversation while keeping a balance between influencing and attending skills.
define Self-disclosure:
Indicating your thoughts and feelings to a client constitutes self-disclosure, which necessitates the following: 1.Use personal pronouns (\”I\” statements).
2. Use a verb for content or feeling (\”I feel . . .\” \”I think . . .\”). 3. Use an object coupled with adverb and adjective descriptors (\”I feel happy about your being able to assert yourself . . .\”). 4. Express your feelings appropriately. Self-disclosure tends to be most effective if it is genuine, timely, and phrased in the present tense. Keep your self-disclosure brief. At times, consider sharing short stories from your own life.
define Feedback and the 7 ‘rules’:
Feedback accurate data on how you or others view the client. Remember the following: (These guidelines are useful for all influencing skills)
1. The client should be in charge.
2. Focus on strengths.
3. Be concrete and specific.
4. Be nonjudgmental.
5. As appropriate, provide here-and-now feedback.
6. Keep feedback lean and precise.
7. Check out how your feedback was received.
Logical consequences:
This skill predicts the probable results of a client’s action, in five steps:
1. Listen to make sure you understand the situation and how it is understood by the client.
2. Encourage the client to think about positive and negative consequences of a decision.
3. Provide your data on the positive and negative consequences of a decision in a nonjudgmental manner.
4. Summarise the positives and negatives.
5. Let the client decide what action to take.
what is Information and psycho-education:
Many times clients need the counsellor’s knowledge and expertise around key life issues. The counsellor knows the community and resources available. He or she also knows the likely pattern and key issues of a divorce, the death of a family member, or other life issue. Psycho-education is a more systematic way to teach clients of new life possibilities; this may range from training in communication skills to developing a successful wellness plan.
what are Directives:
Involve your client with the choice of directives, even to the point of telling her or him what is to happen and what to expect as a result. Appropriately assertive body language, vocal tone, and eye contact are important, as are clear, concrete verbal expressions and checking out the degree of client participation.

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