Practice ATI questions Renal and Urinary

Flashcard maker : Richard Lattimore
A nurse is planning care for a client who is postoperative following a nephrectomy. Which of the following assessments is the priority for the nurse to evaluate?
a. bowel sounds
b. WBC count
c. pain level
d. blood pressure

d. blood pressure

The greatest risk to the client is acute adrenal insufficiency. The adrenal gland can be removed or damaged during nephrectomy. The nurse should evaluate the client for hypotension, decreased urine output, and decreased level of consciousness.

A nurse is planning care for a client who has acute glomerulonephritis. The nurse should plan to provide which of the following interventions?
a. weigh the client daily
b. encourage the client to drink 2 to 3L of fluid per day
c. instruct the client to ambulate every 2 hr.
d. obtain the client’s serum blood glucose

a. weigh the client daily

The nurse can monitor fluid retention by weighing the client daily

A nurse is planning care for a client who is scheduled to undergo extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urolithiasis. Which of the following actions should the nurse plan to take?
a. place the client in a semi-Fowler’s position
b. assist with the client’s intubation
c. begin a 24-hr urine specimen collection after the procedure
d. apply electrodes for cardiac monitoring

d. apply electrodes for cardiac monitoring

The nurse should apply electrodes for continuous monitoring of the client’s cardiac rhythm during ESWL. The monitoring allows the provider to deliver shock waves that are synchronized with the R wave.

A nurse is planning care for a group of clients. Which of the following clients should the nurse plan to monitor for signs of nephrotoxicity?
a. a client who is receiving gentamicin for treatment of a wound infection.
b. a client who is receiving digoxin for treatment of heart failure
c. a client who is receiving methylprednisolone for treatment of hypertension
d. a client who is receiving propranolol for treatment of hypertension

a. a client who is receiving gentamicin for treatment of a wound infection.

Aminoglycoside antibiotics can injure cells of the proximal renal tubules, causing acute tubular necrosis. The nurse should plan to monitor this client for nephrotoxicity and acute kidney injury.

A nurse is reviewing the medical records of four clients. Which of the following conditions is a risk factor for chronic pyelonephritis?
a. parkinson’s disease
b. diabetes mellitus
c. peptic ulcer disease
d. gallbladder disease

b. diabetes mellitus

A client who has a history of diabetes mellitus is at risk for the development of chronic pyelonephritis due to reduced bladder tone.

A nurse is performing an admission assessment of a client who has acute glomerulonephritis. The nurse should expect which of the following findings?
a. low blood pressure
b. polyuria
c. dark-colored urine
d. weight loss

c. dark-colored urine

The client who has acute glomerulonephritis usually has urine that is a dark, reddish-brown color.

A nurse is caring for a client who has chronic kidney failure and the following laboratory results: BUN 196 mg/dL, sodium 152 mEq/L, and potassium 7.3 mEq/L. Which of the following interventions should the nurse implement?
a. initiate an IV infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride
b. give oral spirolactone
c. infuse regular insulin dextrose 10% in water
d. administer furosemide

c. infuse regular insulin dextrose 10% in water

The client has an elevated potassium level should receive regular insulin with dextrose 10% in water by continuous IV infusion to facilitate moving potassium out of the extracellular fluid into intracellular fluid.

A nurse is caring for a client the night before a scheduled intravenous urography. Which of the following is the nurse’s priority intervention?
a. inform the client about dietary limitations
b. place the informed consent document in the client’s record
c. administer a bowel preparation to the client
d. determine if the client is allergic to iodine of shellfish

d. determine if the client is allergic to iodine of shellfish

The greatest risk to the client is injury or death form an allergic reaction to radiopaque contrast media. The nurse should determine if the client has an allergy to iodine or shellfish, which indicates the client is at high risk of having an allergic reaction to the contrast media

A nurse is performing an admission assessment on a client who has severe chronic kidney disease (CKD). Which of the following findings should the nurse expect for this client?
a. tachypnea
b. hypotension
c. exophthalmos
d. insomnia

a. tachypnea

The nurse should expect the client who has severe CKD to have tachypnea due to metabolic acidosis

A nurse is caring for a client who has nephrotic syndrome and has been taking prednisone for 3 days. Which of the following adverse effects should the nurse monitor for and report to the provider?
a. sore throat
b. frequent stools
c. drowsiness
d. tremors

a. sore throat

Glucocorticoids depress the natural immune system and increase the client’s risk for infection. A sore throat can indicate an infection.

A nurse is reviewing the laboratory reports of a client who has acute kidney injury (AKI). Which of the following findings should the nurse expect? (Select all that apply)
a. BUN 30 mg/dL
b. Urine output of 40mL in past 3hr
c. Potassium 3.6 mEq/L
d. Serum calcium 9.8 mg/dL
e. Hematocrit 30%
a. BUN 30 mg/dL
b. Urine output of 40mL in past 3hr
e. Hematocrit 30%
A nurse is discussing hemodialysis with a newly licensed nurse. The nurse should identify that hemodialysis is contraindicated for which of the following clients?
a. a client who cant receive anticoagulants
b. a client who is unable to ambulate
c. a client who is immunocompromised
d. a client who is allergic to iodine

a. a client who cant receive anticoagulants

Anticoagulants are required for clients receiving hemodialysis to prevent clot formation. Therefore, hemodialysis is contraindicated for a client who cannot receive anticoagulants.

A nurse is providing teaching for a client who has urge urinary incontinence. The nurse should include which of the following instructions?
a. sit on the toilet with water running every 4hr.
b. set an interval for toileting based on previous voiding pattern
c. respond immediately to the urge to void
d. self-catheterize daily following a regular voiding
b. set an interval for toileting based on previous voiding pattern
A nurse is providing discharge teaching for a client who has chronic kidney disease (CKD). Which of the following statements by the client indicates an understanding of the teaching?
a. \”i will consume foods high in protein\”
b. \”i will decrease my intake of foods high in phosphorus\”
c. \”i will limit my intake of foods high in calcium\”
d. \”i will add salt to the foods I consume\”

b. \”i will decrease my intake of foods high in phosphorus\”

Clients who have CKD should limit the intake of foods high in phosphorus due to the decrease in the kidneys’ ability to excrete it.

A nurse is caring for a client who has continuous bladder irrigation following a transurethral resection of the prostate. Upon detecting an output obstruction, which of the following actions should the nurse take first?
a. irrigate the catheter with normal saline
b. notify the provider
c. check the irrigation tubing for kinks
d. provide PRN pain medication
c. check the irrigation tubing for kinks
A nurse is providing instructions regarding reduced dietary intake of potassium for a client who has chronic kidney disease. Which of the following food selections is appropriate for the nurse to recommend to the client?
a. 1 cup cubed cantaloupe
b. 1 cup boiled spinach
c. 1 baked potato
d. 1 large apple
d. 1 large apple
A nurse is preparing a teaching plan for a male client who has continent internal ileal reservoir following surgery to treat bladder cancer. Which of the following statements should the nurse include in the teaching plan?
a. \”this should not affect you ability to have sexual intercourse\”
b. \”you should empty you new bladder when it feels full\”
c. \”you will need to avoid foods that produce intestinal gas\”
d. \”you must insert a catheter through your stoma to drain the urine\”
d. \”you must insert a catheter through your stoma to drain the urine\”
A nurse is assessing a client who has chronic kidney disease and has completed her third peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment. Which of the following findings should the nurse report to the provider?
a. greater outflow of dialysate than outflow
b. weight loss
c. cloudy dialysate effluent
d. report of pain during inflow

c. cloudy dialysate effluent

Cloudy or opaque drainage is an early manifestation of peritonitis. The nurse should notify the provider immediately because infection can be a life-threatening complication.

A nurse is caring for a client who has received hemodialysis. the nurse should identify that which of the following findings places the client at risk for seizures

a. hypokalemia
b. a rapid increase of catecholamines
c. a rapid decrease in fluid
d. hypercalcemia

c. a rapid decrease in fluid

a rapid decrease in fluid can result in cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure, placing the client at risk for seizures

A nurse is teaching a client who has a new diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Which of the following instructions should the nurse include in the teaching?
a. Drink up to 1,500 mL of fluid per day
b. avoid the use of NSAIDs for pain
c. Monitor peripheral blood glucose level twice per day
d. increase dietary protein intake

b. avoid the use of NSAIDs for pain

the nurse should instruct the client to avoid the use of NSAIDs for pain, which can further damage the kidney

A nurse is caring for a client following extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for the treatment of calcium phosphate kidney stones. Which of the following actions is appropriate for the nurse to take?
a. monitor for the client’s urine for ketones
b. provide the client with anincreased animal protein diet
c. limit the client’s fluid intake to 1.5L per day
d. strain all of the client’s urine

d. strain all of the client’s urine

The nurse should strain all of the client’s urine following ESWL to monitor for stone fragments as they leave the body.

A nurse is caring for a client immediately following a kidney transplant. The nurse should identify shich of the following client findings as a possible indication of a delay in functioning of the transplanted kidney?
a. blood pressure 110/58 mmHg
b. incisional tenderness
c. pink and bloody urine
d. urine output of 30mL/2hr

d. urine output of 30mL/2hr

A minimum urine output of 30mL/hr is expected following a renal transplant.

A nurse is obtaining a voided urine culture and sensitivity for a client who has manifestations of urinary tract infection. Which of the following actions should the nurse take?
a. collect the client’s urine in a clean specimen container
b. instruct the client to initiate the flow of urine before collecting the specimen
c. obtain the client’s first morning voiding on the following day
d. place the client’s urine specimen in a container with a preservative
b. instruct the client to initiate the flow of urine before collecting the specimen
A nurse is providing education regarding cyclosporine for a client who had a kidney transplant 2 days ago. which of the following statements by the nurse is appropriate
a. \”you may experience hair loss due to the medication therapy you’ll be taking\”
b. \”you will need to continue taking this med to protect your new kidneys\”
c. \”use an over the counter anti-inflammatory med for aches and pains\”
d. \”you will be at an increased risk for infection if you stop taking this med\”

b. \”you will need to continue taking this med to protect your new kidneys\”

Clients must take cyclosporine daily for the life of the transplanted organ

A nurse providing teaching for a client who has chronic kidney disease. which of the following client statements indicates an understanding of the teaching

a. i will monitor my bp on the same day each week
b. i will take milk of magnesia if im constipated
c. i will weigh myself each morning
d. i will use salt substitute in my diet

c. i will weigh myself each morning

A nurse is caring for a client who had acute kidney injury. which of the following lab findings should the nurse report to the provider

a. serum potassium 5.0
b. serum calcium 9.0
c. serum creat 4.0
d. serum amylase 84

c. serum creat 4.0
A newly licensed nurse and a nurse preceptor are caring for a client who has just had an arteriovenous shunt placed in left arm. Which of the following actions by the newly licensed nurse requires intervention by the preceptor?
a. auscultating for bruits in the shunt every 4hr while the client is awake
b. elevating the shunted arm on pillows postoperatively
c. measuring blood pressure in the shunted are every 4hr
d. palpating distal pulses of the shunted arm
c. measuring blood pressure in the shunted are every 4hr
A nurse working in a women’s health clinic is caring for a client who reports urinary and dysuria. Which of the following additional findings should the nurse identify as an indication of a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
a. vaginal discharge
b. pyuria
c. glucosuria
d. elevated creatine kinase-MB

b. pyuria

The nurse should identify pyuria, which is white blood cells in the urine, as a common manifestation of UTI

A nurse working in the ED is caring for a client who reports costovertebral angle tenderness, nausea, and vomiting. For which of the following laboratory values should the nurse notify the provider?
a. WBC 15,000 mm3
b. BUN 15 mg/dL
c. urine specific gravity 1.020
d. urine pH 5.5
a. WBC 15,000 mm3

a nurse is caring for a hospitalized client who received hemodialysis 1 hr ago. when evaluating the clients status after dialysis which of the following info should the nurse assess first

a. serum potassium level
b. body weight
c. serum creat
d. vital signs

d. vital signs

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