Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
How does “pull” differ from “push”
“Pull” describes active consumers looking for online information they want.
“Push” describes organizations distributing information to inactive consumers. They may or may not want the material.
Edward L. Bernays, Harold Burson, the Arthur W. Page principles for corporate communication and your textbook all discuss the primary basis for an organization’s reputation. What is it?
Action/behavior. A good reputation is created or destroyed with key publics based on what an organization does—from managing employees to dealing with emergencies. Reputation is the view people in key publics have of an organization based on their interaction with it and its track record.
United Fresh Produce Association
trade association
American Medical Association
professional association
American Federation of Teachers
labor union
National Rifle Association
Advocacy group (social-issue organization)
According to situational crisis communication theory, what should be the base response to an incident?
Help prevent further harm
Help people cope psychologically by providing corrective information and expressing sympathy
How does information delivered by Business Wire or PR Newswire differ from information delivered by the Associated Press?
Business Wire and PR Newswire deliver news releases to subscribers. Those releases are written and edited by the originating organizations. Those organizations pay to have the news release services deliver them as written. The services don’t originate or edit copy. The Associated Press is a cooperative news-gathering organization. It pays journalists to gather information and write stories. It pays editors to act as gatekeepers. AP generates news stories for distribution to member news organizations and controls what those stories say.
When you interact with publics in other nations or with different cultural backgrounds from yours, several factors could complicate effective communication. Name three differences that public relations practitioners should remember.
Differences in:
Communication context (high or low)
Nonverbal communication
Laws, customs and manners
Values and mores
The United States has been involved in public diplomacy with people in other lands since World War II. From 1948 to 1999, the United States Information Agency directed that activity. The agency started overseas broadcast operations such as the Voice of America, Radio Free Europe and Radio in the American Sector of Berlin. Although the USIA and RIAS are gone, VOA, RFE and other U.S.-funded radio and TV operations are still broadcasting U.S. messages to people in other countries. Few Americans have ever heard these broadcasts. What 1948 law prohibits the federal government from directing public diplomacy efforts toward U.S. citizens?
The United States Information and Education Exchange Act of 1948 (Smith-Mundt Act)
NPR reported that BP had eliminated much of its public and government relations staff before the Deepwater Horizon mishap in April 2010 to cut operating costs. As a result, when the accident in the Gulf happened, the company wasn’t prepared to communicate three key messages. What were they?
BP was accountable.
BP was concerned about the situation. BP had a plan to address the situation.
Geert Hofstede, a psychologist for IBM, identified five basic cultural dimensions among international employees. The dimensions were power-distance measures, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term/short-term orientation. On the individualism/collectivism scale, North Americans and Western Europeans generally gravitated toward individualism. Name one region/continent where Hofstede found more collectivist cultures?
Asia or Latin America
John Smith was the first man to enroll at the College of Saint Elizabeth, a formally all-women’s school in Convent Station, N.J.
President Barrack Obama is heading to his Chicago home for Memorial Day.
More than 5,000 Virginia Tech students gathered on the Drillfield to celebrate the football team’s victory.
Technical problems have delayed Endeavor’s final liftoff until at least Sunday. NASA officials say poor weather this weekend may delay the launch further.
National Weather Service officials in Blacksburg confirmed that a tornado destroyed one home and a barn one mile west of the Virginia Tech campus last month.
Lobbying is a subspecialty of government affairs. What’s the purpose of lobbying?
Legislative advocacy for an organization— working for the passage, defeat or amendment of proposed legislation or regulatory policies.
Which tweet length generates the most engagement (retreets)?
71-100 characters
A public relations practitioner assigned to build up an individual’s public image should consider what psychological factors of celebrity he or she might employ. Name two psychological factors underlying the American obsession with celebrities.
Hero worship
Sense of belonging (community) Desire for entertainment
Base on the 2013 State of the News Media report, which medium do Americans use most for news?
When Ivy Ledbetter Lee developed the “press handout” in 1906, it was designed to appeal to news gatekeepers (reporters and editors). In the Internet/ social media age, what’s the target audience for current news releases?
Everyone (especially with online access)
Why do public affairs specialists for corporations and nonprofit organizations monitor activities in local, state and federal legislative bodies and regulatory agencies?
They are keeping track of issues and decision that might affect their organization so it can plan to respond to policy changes.
Many news media stories are based on news releases. According to Truth Merchants: Public Relations and the Media, what percentage of Canada Newswire releases is picked up by Canadian news organizations?
80 percent
When an emergency happens, what’s the primary public relations objective
Take the initiative!
How does reputation differ from brand?
Reputation is the sum of what others say or think about you. Reputation is based on how you interact with others (what you do or say) and how they evaluate those actions. Reputation exists in the eye of the beholder. It is conferred, not projected.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is trademark.
Name a federal law that limits the way federal
agencies can practice public relations and
describe the legal restriction.
The Gillett Amendment of 1913 (now Title V, Sect. 3107 USC) prohibits federal agencies from spending money for publicity unless specifically authorized by Congress. In 1919, Congress passed the gag law, which prohibited using appropriations for services, messages, or propaganda.
The Smith-Mundt Act (U.S. Information and Education Exchange Act of 1948) prohibits domestic access to information intended for foreign audiences. It established the programming mandate that still serves as the foundation for U.S. overseas information and cultural programs at the Department of State and VOA.
Public Law 92-351 prohibits government spending on publicity or propaganda purposes designed to support or defeat legislation pending before Congress.
According to Canadian communication consultant Jeff Ansell—interviewed in Truth Merchants: Public Relations and the Media—why do corporate communication executives need to provide interview training for organizational executives and
To avoid misunderstanding of corporate messages. He said news judgment was subjective. Because journalists determined what people saw, heard and read, newsmakers needed to provide context in their responses to questions. The goal was to be forthcoming, honest and tell the story in a way that left little room for misunderstanding.
Roanoke Symphony Orchestra
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Government relations practitioners often employ the personal influence model of public relations. How does personal influence differ from influence peddling?
Personal influence relies on regular interactions or friendships between officials and lobbyists that reflect some level of trust and mutual benefit.
Influence peddling involves charging others for connections (“cashing in”) and using questionable tactics (lavish gifts) to garner support.
Public relations people involved in fundraising need to understand potential contributors’ motives for giving. How do intrinsic and extrinsic motives differ?
Intrinsic motives are based on altruism (internal rewards).
Extrinsic motives are based on external rewards.
Using grassroots efforts to mobilize public support for a cause is a common public relations tactic. In what way might the use of that tactic raise ethical questions? What provision of the Public Relations Society of America Member Code of Ethics addresses this situation?
When public relations firms set up front groups (Astroturf groups) and won’t disclose the sponsors. That violates the Disclosure of Information provision.
Scholars put public relations jobs into two large categories: technician and manager. What’s the primary functional difference between a communication technician and a public relations manager?
Technicians prepare materials for public relations efforts. Technicians are not usually involved in organizational decision making. They explain decisions made by others.
Managers are involved in organizational decision making, are responsible for public relations effectiveness and often work with the (dominant coalition)
What three things did Sam Crothers say a company represented needed to know when responding to reporters immediately after an accident?
Know your company policy.
Know what reporters need to know to do their jobs.
Know what to say (initial information to release), say it (deliver key initial messages), and then say goodbye (don’t speculate or elaborate).
In-house public relations departments go by many names today but usually not “public relations.” Give two alternative names that in-house departments commonly use.
Public affairs
External affairs
Reputation is one of an organization’s most important assets. Edelman’s Trust Barometer and Harris’ Reputation Quotient measure corporate reputation in the U.S. annually. What three elements does your textbook identify as “foundations of reputation”?
Economic performance
Social responsiveness
Ability to deliver valuable outcomes to stakeholders
Person dies after taking tainted Tylenol.
Worker files $119-million defamation lawsuit against company.
Neighbors oppose zoning change for church.
NCAA issues death penalty to SMU in pay- for-play case.
Tornado cuts path of destruction through city, closes university.
Based on the 2013 State of the Media report, what percentage of Americans older than 12 listen to radio weekly?
More than 90 percent
What are the three types of crisis attributions does situational crisis communication theory identify?
What two factors in situational crisis communication theory intensify attribution of responsibility?
History of crises
Prior negative reputation
Which is most true regarding the role of public relations in globalization?
Public relations has worked to open all markets to outside competitors.
Which course would be least helpful to a student wanting to pursue a career in international public relations?
Supply chain management
What was the centerpiece of Coke’s Open Happiness campaign?
Using social media to focus on the unity of humanity.
What’s one danger of excessively promoting a celebrity?
Audience expectations will become too high.
What did Professor Lance Kinney’s study of sports event sponsorship find?
Significant increases in stock prices.
What did 73% respondents in the “Moviegoers: 2010” study say?
They first heard about a movie through TV advertisements.
What’s the fastest-growing area of the political persuasion business?
Grassroots lobbying.
What is one of the federal government’s longest-running public relations efforts?
Distributing military “hometown” news releases.
To function effectively at all levels, what must governments do?
Communicate effectively with its constituents.
Which best defines an advocacy group?
It fights for social causes.
How do social issue organizations differ from activist groups?
Their social and behavioral goals are more broadly defined.
Which is key for public relations professionals working at colleges and universities?
They must be part of the management team.
What is the basic principle of the contingency theory of conflict management in public relations?
A number of factors influence public relations practice.
After the 2010 BP oil spill, what was the biggest shortcoming in BP’s social media efforts?
BP’s social media outreach did not gain enough attention to go viral.
In crisis communication, can a company assume that because nothing has gone wrong, then nothing will go wrong?
No, because every system and every design contains noise.
Can corporate websites be a useful media relations tool?
Yes, because journalists use them to retrieve news releases, media kits and photographs.
What should public relations practitioners remember about using Facebook effectively?
Establishing connections takes thought and creativity.
You are a publicist promoting a new album release for an up-and-coming rock act. Your record label has provided a very limited budget for this project. You want to give fans a taste of the new music so they can hear it at any time wherever they are. What’s your best media choice?
For public relations practitioners, what’s the best reason to run an organizational blog?
It enables a real-time conversation with key stakeholders.
How are media kits most often used?
For major product launches
Why are meetings considered vital public relations tools?
Meetings provide opportunities for people to meet face-to-face.
When planning a banquet, which factor requires the closest attention?
Of the following, what is most important in considering the public relations value of a VNR?
News potential of the information
You work for a large technology firm that is unveiling a major new product. You think the product will revolutionize the mobile phone and create many new jobs. What is your best media relations tool?
news conference
Hiring a celebrity for a promotional event is considered:
A time-honored tool for increasing media attendance.
According to an IABC survey, which of the following do CEOs think about the value of public relations?
PR pays nearly a 200 percent return on investment.
According to James Grunig, what is the ideal relationship between marketing and public relations?
Public relations is a distinct discipline and must be practiced separately.
What’s standard industry practice among public relations agencies?
To bill clients at least three times a person’s salary.
Why can serving as an organizational spokesperson be challenging?
You may personally disagree with what you are asked to say on behalf of the organization.
Customer satisfaction has been considered important because of the power of which item?
“Word of mouth” advertising.
Which of the following is a good example of “cause-related” marketing
Allocating a percentage of sales to restore the Statue of Liberty
What’s the most significant aspect of the mass audience in the United States today?
What’s a general characteristic of Americans in the early twenty-first century?
They are more visually oriented than earlier groups.
According to recent research on Latinos and social media, which statement is true?
Latinos are twice as likely to use social media as their non-Hispanic counterparts
Which mass medium generates the strongest emotional impact with publics?
name 3 trends affecting public relations practice today
?PR practitioners constantly adapt to social, technological changes.
?Digital media have expanded PR tools.
?Online campaigns join modern PR mix.
?Legal and ethical standards govern practice.
?PR practitioners must be socially responsible.
In June 1995 only 14 percent of Americans used the Internet, the Pew Internet and American Life Project Survey showed. By August 2011 that number had climbed to nearly 80 percent. The change illustrates Everett Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory. Which factor of that theory does the following statement describe?
relative advantage

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