POLS Test 2

Civil Liberties are
restraints on the actions of government against individuals
As originally presented in the Constitution, the Bill of Rights
limited only the power of the national government, not the states
The incorporation theory involves
application of the Bill of Rights to the states
The concept of the separation of church and state
Both A and B are correct
In Lemon vs. Kurtzman, the Supreme Court found that
the government must avoid excessive entanglement with religion
According to a Supreme Court decision, prayer in public schools
may not be sponsored or endorsed by school officials
The free exercise clause
Both A and B are correct
Speech may be restricted if that speech
has the tendency to cause harm or danger
Which of the following forms of symbolic speech are not protected by the First Amendment?
burning a draft card issued by the federal government
The principle that speech may be restricted if such expression might lead to some “evil” is
the bad tendency rule
Commercial speech is usually defined as
advertising statements
Regarding freedom of speech on state college and university campuses, federal courts have found
activity feeds that go to support a variety of on-campus political groups to be constitutional
The First Amendment prevents Congress from making any law that
Both A and B are correct
“Prior restraint” is
censorship before publication
New York Times vs. United States (1971)
affirmed the no-prior-restraint doctrine in the Pentagon Papers case
For a public figure to obtain a damage award under libel laws, he or she must
prove that he/she suffered from the falsehood just as much as a private person
The reality concerning obscenity and pornography is that
primary responsibility for regulating obscenity rests with state and local governments
The Supreme Court interpreted the Second Amendment to mean that a person has a personal right to own a gun for personal self-defense in which case?
District of Columbia v. Heller (2008)
All of these instances are reasonable grounds for searches and seizures (without a warrant) except
you are stopped for a traffic violation
Double jeopardy prevents
two criminal trials by the same government for the same offense
The purpose of the grand jury is to
determine whether there is sufficient evidence to justify a trial
A defendant’s pre-trial rights include all of the following except
the right to legal counsel
In the case of Miranda vs. Arizona, the Supreme Court ruled that ___________ and is a section of the _______ Amendment
police must inform any suspect of a series of rights, including the constitutional rights to remain silent / Fifth
In Gideon vs. Wainwright, the Supreme Court ruled that __________ and is a section of the _________ Amendment
if one cannot afford an attorney, the government must provide one / Sixth
The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments, taken together, define
due process of law
Cruel and unusual punishment is prohibited by
the Eighth Amendment
Based on class discussion, the only purpose of execution in the United States is
it is always in proportion to the crime
In 1963, in Griswold vs. Connecticut, a case involving the legality of contraceptives, the Supreme Court
held that the law violated the right to privacy
Which of the following are true of the decision in Roe vs. Wade?
It extended the right of privacy to cover a woman’s personal decision on abortion
Which of the following is true about Civil Rights?
what the government must do to ensure freedom from discrimination
The Thirteenth Amendment
provides that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist in the Untied States
The Fifteenth Amendment
gave black males the right to vote
All citizens are guaranteed the “equal protection of the laws” by the
Fourteenth Amendment
What does the term Jim Crow refer to?
racial segregation in the South after Reconstruction
In Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896), the U.S. Supreme Court
tried to stop the development of legal racial segregation known as Jim Crow Laws
The Separate but Equal Doctrine stated that
states can require separate facilities based on race as long as facilities are equal in nature
Which of the following best summarized the Supreme Court’s ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education?
Racially segregated schools can never be equal
A poll tax was used to
dissuade African Americans and poor whites from voting
In a case of workplace discrimination, which government institution would most likely handle the complaint?
the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
forbade discrimination on the basis of race
A major result of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was
that the number of African Americans registered to vote climbed dramatically
De facto segregation means segregation
attributed to residential racial patterns, not because of laws
The civil rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was based on the philosophy of
non-violent civil disobedience
Laws that potentially interfere with fundamental rights or classify people based on race have to pass which test employed by the courts?
strict scrutiny
At what level of scrutiny do courts review cases involving gender discrimination, such as military schools prohibiting females?
intermediate scrutiny
Courts presume government classifications based on race to be
inherently suspect
State laws that restrict the right to vote to people over age 18 are an example of ____________ under the Supreme Court’s standards of classification
a reasonable basis for discrimination
Affirmative action in the United States involves
special consideration to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome or remedy past discrimination
In the case of Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke, the Supreme Court ruled that
race cannot be considered as a factor at all in making admissions decisions
Which statement about affirmative action best reflects current Supreme Court precedent (past decisions)?
Although racial set-asides are unconsitutional, race may be considered as one among many factors in determining college admissions

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