POLS Test 2

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Civil Liberties are
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restraints on the actions of government against individuals
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As originally presented in the Constitution, the Bill of Rights
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limited only the power of the national government, not the states
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The incorporation theory involves
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application of the Bill of Rights to the states
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The concept of the separation of church and state
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Both A and B are correct
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In Lemon vs. Kurtzman, the Supreme Court found that
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the government must avoid excessive entanglement with religion
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According to a Supreme Court decision, prayer in public schools
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may not be sponsored or endorsed by school officials
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The free exercise clause
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Both A and B are correct
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Speech may be restricted if that speech
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has the tendency to cause harm or danger
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Which of the following forms of symbolic speech are not protected by the First Amendment?
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burning a draft card issued by the federal government
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The principle that speech may be restricted if such expression might lead to some “evil” is
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the bad tendency rule
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Commercial speech is usually defined as
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advertising statements
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Regarding freedom of speech on state college and university campuses, federal courts have found
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activity feeds that go to support a variety of on-campus political groups to be constitutional
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The First Amendment prevents Congress from making any law that
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Both A and B are correct
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“Prior restraint” is
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censorship before publication
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New York Times vs. United States (1971)
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affirmed the no-prior-restraint doctrine in the Pentagon Papers case
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For a public figure to obtain a damage award under libel laws, he or she must
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prove that he/she suffered from the falsehood just as much as a private person
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The reality concerning obscenity and pornography is that
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primary responsibility for regulating obscenity rests with state and local governments
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The Supreme Court interpreted the Second Amendment to mean that a person has a personal right to own a gun for personal self-defense in which case?
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District of Columbia v. Heller (2008)
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All of these instances are reasonable grounds for searches and seizures (without a warrant) except
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you are stopped for a traffic violation
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Double jeopardy prevents
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two criminal trials by the same government for the same offense
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The purpose of the grand jury is to
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determine whether there is sufficient evidence to justify a trial
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A defendant’s pre-trial rights include all of the following except
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the right to legal counsel
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In the case of Miranda vs. Arizona, the Supreme Court ruled that ___________ and is a section of the _______ Amendment
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police must inform any suspect of a series of rights, including the constitutional rights to remain silent / Fifth
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In Gideon vs. Wainwright, the Supreme Court ruled that __________ and is a section of the _________ Amendment
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if one cannot afford an attorney, the government must provide one / Sixth
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The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments, taken together, define
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due process of law
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Cruel and unusual punishment is prohibited by
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the Eighth Amendment
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Based on class discussion, the only purpose of execution in the United States is
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it is always in proportion to the crime
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In 1963, in Griswold vs. Connecticut, a case involving the legality of contraceptives, the Supreme Court
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held that the law violated the right to privacy
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Which of the following are true of the decision in Roe vs. Wade?
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It extended the right of privacy to cover a woman’s personal decision on abortion
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Which of the following is true about Civil Rights?
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what the government must do to ensure freedom from discrimination
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The Thirteenth Amendment
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provides that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist in the Untied States
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The Fifteenth Amendment
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gave black males the right to vote
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All citizens are guaranteed the “equal protection of the laws” by the
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Fourteenth Amendment
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What does the term Jim Crow refer to?
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racial segregation in the South after Reconstruction
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In Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896), the U.S. Supreme Court
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tried to stop the development of legal racial segregation known as Jim Crow Laws
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The Separate but Equal Doctrine stated that
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states can require separate facilities based on race as long as facilities are equal in nature
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Which of the following best summarized the Supreme Court’s ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education?
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Racially segregated schools can never be equal
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A poll tax was used to
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dissuade African Americans and poor whites from voting
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In a case of workplace discrimination, which government institution would most likely handle the complaint?
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the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
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The Civil Rights Act of 1964
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forbade discrimination on the basis of race
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A major result of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was
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that the number of African Americans registered to vote climbed dramatically
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De facto segregation means segregation
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attributed to residential racial patterns, not because of laws
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The civil rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was based on the philosophy of
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non-violent civil disobedience
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Laws that potentially interfere with fundamental rights or classify people based on race have to pass which test employed by the courts?
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strict scrutiny
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At what level of scrutiny do courts review cases involving gender discrimination, such as military schools prohibiting females?
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intermediate scrutiny
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Courts presume government classifications based on race to be
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inherently suspect
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State laws that restrict the right to vote to people over age 18 are an example of ____________ under the Supreme Court’s standards of classification
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a reasonable basis for discrimination
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Affirmative action in the United States involves
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special consideration to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome or remedy past discrimination
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In the case of Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke, the Supreme Court ruled that
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race cannot be considered as a factor at all in making admissions decisions
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Which statement about affirmative action best reflects current Supreme Court precedent (past decisions)?
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Although racial set-asides are unconsitutional, race may be considered as one among many factors in determining college admissions

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