Political Science study guide

What restrictions did the British government place on the colonists?
– They placed a tax (Stamp Act of 1765) on the colonists paper goods
– They also restricted their trade with foreign nations

Why did the British government think these sanctions were warranted?
– French and Indiana War – British fought for the colonists and went into debt, so they wanted the colonies to pay them back with taxes
– They were a colony, Britain established them and they were entitled to reap their benefits as far as trade.

What did the colonists do to protest the new taxes and trade rules?
– Marches
– Signed Petitions
– Attacked tax collectors
– Burned tax offices
– Boycotted things (English Tea)

The british government blocked what harbor?
The Boston Harber

What was the continental congress?
– Was established formed a united front against Britain to show them they didn’t want the

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taxes and trade rules

What was the document that broke the colonies away from Britain?
– Declaration of Independence (July 4th 1776)

John Locke states that people have natural rights, what are they?
life, liberty, property

John Locke states that the government should have three qualities, what are they ?
– Protect Natural Rights
– Have consent of the governed
– Be limited

If the government does not have the consent of the governed then what can happen?
– People have the right to revolt and change the government

In the Declaration of Independence, we as Americans are given three inalienable rights, what are they?
– Right to Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness

What was the setup of the legislature, executive branch, and the courts under the Articles of Confederation?
– One House Legislature – Continental Congress
o Each state could send 7 delegates, but only cast one vote
o Delegates were elected by their State Legislatures
– No Executive/ President
– No Courts

What powers were given to the Legislature under the Articles of Confederation?
– Maintain the Army and Navy
– Manage the Western Territories
– Create a currency (money)

What powers were NOT given to the Legislature under the Articles of Confederation?
– COULD NOT TAX – relied on donations from the states
– Could NOT regulate trade – other states did not have free trade with each other. No national economy.
– Tariff – a tax on imported goods (Washington Apples trying to be sold in Oregon, Oregon wants to charge and extra .01 per apple so Washington apples cost .11 at the market and Oregon apples cost .10, what are people going to buy)

What was the ratification process for the Articles of Confederation?
– All 13 colonies must approve the Articles
– Took from 1777-1781 (4 years)
– During this time the Articles had no money!!

How was the Constitutional Convention formed/started?
– A group met at Annapolis to discuss the Articles and 12 people came, they decided to then call another meeting
– In May 1787, a group of a people called the Const. Convention to think of how to change the Articles of Confederation. (55 people attended)
– They met in Philadelphia

What were the demographics of the Constitutional Convention?
– Most were young
– 39 had served in the Cont Congress
– 34 people were lawyers, most attendees had some type of education
– Most lived on the coast
– Most were urban

What were the two major issues the delegates at the Constitutional Convention talked about?
– Issues of Equality and the Strength of the Economy

Detail the Virginia Plan
– National Legislature with 2 Houses
o Upper House (Senate
• Reps would be proportional to state population
• Elected by state legislatures
o Lower House (House of Rep
• Reps would be proportional to state population
• Elected by citizens
– National Executive
o Single Term in Office
o Chosen by Legislature
– Supreme Court
o Limited Powers
o Justices Appt for Life by National Leg

Detail the New Jersey Plan
– National Leg with One House (Just like the Articles of Confederation)
o Each state could send 7 delegates, but only have one vote
o The reps would be chosen by the state legislatures
– National Executive
o Multi – Person Executive
o Chosen by the Legislature
– Supreme Court
o Limited Powers
o Chose by the Executives for Life Terms

Detail the Connecticut Plan (Great Compromise)
– National Legislature with 2 Houses
o Upper House (Senate)
• Each state would have an equal vote
• All reps were chosen by state legislatures
• Approve all treaties and appointments
o Lower House (House of Rep)
• Each state would have reps proportional to their population
• One for every 30,000 people
• Reps would be elected by the citizens
• They would originate all bills for spending and taxing

Detail the 3/5th’s Compromise
– In terms of taxing and representation in Congress each slave would count as 3/5th of a person
– 71,000 (free) x 10,000 (slave) (10,000x 3/5) (6,000) = 77,000

What did the delegates at the Constitution Convention think about everyone having the right to vote?
– Some were in favor of allowing women the right to vote, others didn’t like it

Who decides who has the right to vote?
– In the end, who has the right to vote was not discussed in the Constitution. It is left up to the individual states

Detail what the Federalists thought about the strength of the economy
– Thought that we had a weak national economy
– Wanted a strong national government

Detail what the Anti-Federalists thought about the strength of the economy
– Thought that economic problems were exaggerated and that we needed a weak government and people to just stick with it and it would get better

What economic powers did the Federalists give to Congress? (7 OF THEM)
– Tax and Borrow
– Spend the tax money and borrowed money
– Create a new currency
– Pay off national debt (54 Million)
– Build infrastructure (roads, bridges, post office)
– Enforce Property rights and persecute Pirates, set up Bankruptcy Laws
o Copyrights (Written, Seen, Heard)
o Patents (Touchable Items)
– Regulate Commerce between states (NO TARIFFS)

What powers did Congress take away from the states? (3 OF THEM)
– States do not have their own currency
– States can’t place tariffs on other states goods
– States respect contracts and court judgments made in other states
Know the Checks and Balances System

What checks does Congress have on the Courts and the President?
– Approving the Justices of the Court
– Approving Presidential Appointments

What checks does the President have on Congress and the Courts?
– Veto Bills made by Congress
– Appointing Court Justices

What checks does the Supreme Court have on Congress and the President?
– Declare laws and Presidential acts unconstitutional

What is detailed in Article 1? –
What is detailed in Article 2? –
What is detailed in Article 3? –

What is detailed in Article 4?
Respect Court Judgments made in other states; Slaves caught in free states must be returned to slave states

What is detailed in Article 5?
How to amend the Constitution (2/3 vote in House and Senate) 2/3 of States must approve the Amendment

What is detailed in Article 6?
Constitution is the Supreme Law of the Land

What is detailed in Article 7?
Ratification of Constitution 9/13 colonies Super Majority

How was the Constitution of the United States ratified?
9/13 colonies approve it

Who was Publius and what did he/they do?
Wrote articles in favor of the constitution 85 in total

Detail the Anti-Federalist Papers
Said what they did not like about the Constitution

Why were the Anti- Federalists so unhappy with the Constitution?
National Gov’t would tax a lot, S.C would strike down laws made by states, Pres would use the military against us, No Protection of rights (religion, speech, cruel and unusual punishment)

What agreement did the Federalists and Anti-Federalists come up with to ratify the Constitution?
– Bill of Rights would be passed once the Constitution was finally ratified
– This was to protect civil liberties

How long did it take to ratify the Constitution? –
– A little over 2 years (Delaware 1787, Rhode Island 1790)

What was added to the Constitution once it was ratified during the first congress?
– The Bill of Rights to ensure that civil liberties were protected

What is federalism?
– A way of organizing the government so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the same people

Who has federalist systems?
– Less than 15 countries in the world ( Australia, Brazil, Germany etc)
– All North American Nations have them

Why did the U.S develop a Federal System?
– The size of the U.S
– Both Federalists and Anti-Federalists agreed upon this system
– Allowed us to operate democracy in a different way
– Some functions of government could be delegated to state and local governments

What are some of the national powers?
– Coin Money
– Regulate Commerce
– Army and Navy
– Declare War
– Establish Inferior Courts (Underneath the Supreme Court)
– Make Laws

What are some of the state powers?
– Set elections
– Ratify Constitutional Amendments
– Help with public health and safety
– Exert powers not given to national government but not prohibited from the states
– Establish local government
– Regulate commerce within that state

What are concurrent powers?
– Tax
– Borrow Money
– Make and Enforce Laws
– Charter Banks
– Spend money for general welfare
– Eminent Domain

What is dual federalism
– Where there is a clear separation between what the national government does and what the state governments do.

What was McCulloch v. Maryland about?
– Creation of a National Bank in the state of Maryland and that it competed with local banks so MA wanted to tax the national bank and they refused to pay the tax and sued Maryland

What was the verdict of the Supreme Court? Why?
– They stated that the necessary and proper clause allowed the national government to create all laws necessary and proper to executing out their powers.

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