Physics atomic structure of matter

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Fnet*t=mv-mv0
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law of impulse and momentum
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Vector
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Impulse V or S
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Vector
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Momentum V or S
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Kgm/s or N*s
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SI units for Impulse and Momentum
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Momentum
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Sum of individual momenta
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Conserved
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Total momentum is
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m1v1+m2v2=m1v1’+m2v2′
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Law of elastic collision
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m1v1+m2v2=v'(m1+m2)
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Law of inelastic collision
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m1v1’=m2v2′
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Law when both objects have an initial velocity of 0
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KE=1/2mv^2
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Law of Kinetic Energy
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PE=mgy
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Law of Potential Energy
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Kgm^2/s^2
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Units for energy
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Scalar
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Energy V or S
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ME=KE+PE
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Law of mechanical energy
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Mechanical energy is conserved
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When forces other than gravity do no work
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Atoms
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Matter is made of atoms
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Ancient Greeks
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These philosophers thought that all matter interactions are determined by interactions amount the constituent atoms
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Democritus
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Most famous Greek atomist
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Dalton
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Observed around the year 1803 certain mass rations in chemical reactions (such as oxygen to hydrogen ration of 1:2 when combining into water
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Quantum Mechanics
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Turned particles into waves and waves into particles Beginning of the 20th century
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J.J Thomson
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In 1910 discovered negatively charged elector on were known as constituents of matter Discovered electron mass and charge Thought that electrons should be evenly spread throughout matter
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Rutherford
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In 1911 he took thin gold foils and directed alpha radiation at them. Discovered that most of the alpha radiation passed through the gold foil without much deflection
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Alpha radiation
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Discovered by Marie Curie Positively charged particles (later known as helium nuclei) Emitted in a radioactive decay from a naturally radioactive substance
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Alpha particles
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Could penetrate through the densely packed gold foil
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Why most of the alpha radiation passed through the gold foil without much deflection
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Momentum considerations tell us that electrons that are 7400 times lighter than alpha particles should not deflect alphas much
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Backwards recoil
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Could only be possible if there were some very heavy, yet very localized , and charged, particles inside the matter.
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Positively charged particles, heavy atomic nuclei, gold nuclei
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Particles that had infrequent backwards recoil
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Positive particle
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Diameter of nucleus was is about 10000 times smaller than the size of the individual, tightly packed atoms
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Negatively charged electrons
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Circle around the heavy positively charged nuclei
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Stable nucleus, proton at rest
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One proton nucleus and a single electron Encircled by matter wave of a single electron
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Standing electron waves
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The most stable state of a quantum mechanical atom
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For an electron to collapse into the nucleus
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10000 times higher momentum 10000 times smaller the distance
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Small atoms
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Stable in nature
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Weak and strong electromagnetic force
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2 fundamental forces in nature besides gravity
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Weak force
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Responsible for atoms, molecules, optics, metals, semiconductors
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Strong force
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Responsible for atomic nuclei and radioactivity
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Electrons, explains why atoms are mostly empty and why nuclei are dense and small
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Only feel the weak electromagnetic force and do not feel the strong force
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Constituents of nuclei
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Feel both the strong force and weak electromagnetic force
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Weak force
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Causes electrons to be much more widely spaced from the nucleus than the particles that interact via strong force
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Electromagnetic force
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Acts between electrically charged particles
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Photons
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Electromagnetic force carriers
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Weak electromagnetic force
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Responsible for the shape and size of all electronic clouds that surround all known atomic nuclei and create electrically neutral atoms
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Residual force
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Between between electrically neutral atoms is responsible for all millions of different molecules and for all chemistry
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1A, Angstrom, 0.1nm, 10^-10m
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The characteristic length scale of the weak force is
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Strong force
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Acts between particles that have color charge.
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Up and down quarks
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Elementary particles that carry color charge are
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Gluons
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The color force carriers
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Color force
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Is responsible for stability and size of the color neutral proton, and color neutral Neuton.
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Up, up and down quarks
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Color neutral proton made of
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Down, down, and up quarks
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Color neutral neutron made of
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protons and neutrons
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All known different atomic nuclei of all 110 or so atoms can be thought as being made of protons and neutrons
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Nuclear physics
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Is the chemistry of strong force.
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1fm, femtometer, or 10^-15m
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The characteristic length scale of objects bound together by strong force is
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2000 electron masses
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The mass of a proton and neutron is about
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up quark u, down quark d
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Strong force elementary particles
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Electron e-, neutrino v
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Weak force elementary particles
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Gluon g
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Strong force elementary force carrier
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Photon Y
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Weak force elementary force carrier
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Proton p (uud)
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Strong force simples composite “hydrogen atom”
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Hydrogen atom H (p+e-), positronium (e+e-)
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Weak Force Simplest composite “Hydrogen atom”
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Neutron n (ddu)
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Strong force other atoms
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He, Li
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Weak Force other atoms
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He4 nucleus, other nuclei
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Storing force molecules
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H2, H20, C2H4, …
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Weak force molecules
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Strong force chemisty
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Nuclear reactions, nuclear energy, radioactivity (alpha, beta, gamma decay)
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Weak for chemistry
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Chemical reactions like 2H20-> O2 + 2H2, chemical energy, proteins, DNA, biology
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Atom
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Is a basic constituent of matter that consists of a heavy, positively charged nucleus and a negatively charged electronic cloud.
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1 Angstrom, 10^-10m
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Atomic sizes are of the order of
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110
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How many different atoms Relatively stable nuclei
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82
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How many atoms are absolutely stable
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Electronic clouds
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Consist of musicale electrons (electron waves) arrange themselves around the nucleus such that the atom is neutral and of lowest possible energy
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Element
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Is matter consisting of atoms of the same type
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Molecules
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Electrically neutral atoms attract each other through residual electromagnetic force and form
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Molecules
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Are bound states of multiple atoms (can be all the same or different)
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Compound
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Is a molecule consisting of different atoms
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Neutral
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Most matter around us is electrically
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Negative ions
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Are atoms which have more electrons than protons
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Positive ions
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Are atoms which have more protons than electrons
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Neutrons and protons
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Each atomic nucleus consists of Each have the same mass
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Neutrons
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Neutral
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Protons
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Have a positive electric charge exactly opposite to that of an electron
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Isotopes
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Are atoms of the same element that have same number of protons in the nucleus, therefore the same nuclear electric charge. They also have same number of electrons Different number of neutrons and different mass
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Isotopes
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Have the same electronic structure and same chemical reactivity because the nucleus is already so much heavier than electrons that one more electrically neutral neutron won’t make a difference in electron cloud around the nucleus
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radioactivity
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The decay of the atomic nucleus
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decay over time
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Isotopes with highly unbalanced (very high or very low) number of neutron will
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Beta B+ decay, Beta B- decay, alpha a decay, nuclear fission, proton emission, neutron emission
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The unstable nuclei decay primarily through
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Beta B+ decay
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Emission of a positron, an antiparticle of an electron
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Beta B- decay
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Emission of an electron
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Alpha a decay
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Emission of a helium 4 nucleus
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Nuclear fission
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Break up of a large nucleus into two smaller ones
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John Alexander Reina Newlands
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A British chemist, noticed the repeating pattern of elements arranged by atomic weight where every eight element had similar chemical properties. He called this the Law of octaves 1865
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Noble gases
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Last column Highly inert, and do not bind to themselves or other elements They provide a big clue to the electronic structure
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Completely filled outer electronic shell
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In a shell model of electronic orbitals, noble gases have
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Alkali Metals
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First column They have one electron surplus beyond the closed she’ll and bind readily with other atoms
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Alkaline earth metals
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Column 2 Bind readily
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Transition Metals
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3rd through 12th column Have complex electronic structures
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Transition Metals
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Lanthanides and Actindes are
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Halogens
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Next to last column Lock one electron to get their outer, valence she’ll completed They are highly reactive and like to bind with metals, especially alkali metals
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Non metals
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Upper triangle C, N, O, P, S, and SE
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Law of Octaves
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8 groups
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2 electrons of different spin
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Hydrogen orbitals can be occupied by

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