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Physical Science 2 Final Exam

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An Alpha particle is really a high energy electron ejected from the nucleus. (True or False)
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false
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When 40 K 19 undergoes a beta decay, the product is 40 Ar 18. (True or False)
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false
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Isotopes with an even number of both protons and neutrons are generally stabe. (True or False)
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true
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Airline crews receive roughly three times the background radiation of those of us who spend most of our time on the ground. (True or False)
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true
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This type of radiation is really the nucleus of a helium atom?
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alpha
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Suppose you start off with 500g of a substance X. After 3 days, 125 g of substance X remains. The half life of X is?
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1.5 days
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The amount of radiation we are naturally exposed to during a year is nearly?
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0.150 rem
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A Geiger counter measures radiation indirectly by measuring?
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electrons released by ionization
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When an isotope releases gamma radiation, the atomic number?
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and mass number remain the same
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Reactor control rods are made of a substance that?
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absorbs neutrons
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A measure of radiation received that considers the biological effect resulting from the radiation is the?
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rem
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All of the naturally occurring elements decay end when the elements have changed to?
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lead
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The source of energy from the sun is?
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fusion
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The type of decay that is most penetrating, but has no mass is the?
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gamma
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A high speed electron ejected from the nucleus is called?
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beta particle
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Which of the following is most likely to be radioactive?
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nuclei with an odd number of protons and neutrons
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An atom of radon-222 loses an alpha particle to become a more stable atom of?
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polonium
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In all power plants the ___ turns the generator?
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turbine
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Which radiation has no electric charge associated with it?
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gamma
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When an alpha particle is ejected from a nucleus, the nucleus then has less?
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charge and mass
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Most of the radioactivity we personally encounter comes from?
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the natural environment
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When radium (A=88) emits an alpha particle, the resulting nucleus has an atomic number of?
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86
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When thorium (A=90) emits a beta particle, the resulting nucleus has an atomic number of?
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91
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Radioactivity in the world is something…
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as old as the world itself
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It’s possible for a hydrogen atom to emit an alpha particle. (True or False)
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true
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In the fissioning of uranium, a chain reaction is caused by?
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ejected neutrons
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In both fission and fusion, mass?
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is changed to the form of kinetic eergy
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Energy released by the sun results from the process when hydrogen atoms?
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combine
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The temperatures required for nuclear fusion are?
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extremely high
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When U-238 emits an alpha particle, the nucleus left behind has?
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90 protons
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When U-239 emits a beta particle, the nucleus left behind has?
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93 protons
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In a nuclear power plant, the steam heated by nuclear fission?
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turns the turbine
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A light year is a measure of astronomical distance. (True or False)
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true
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A proto star is an accumulation of gases in outer space that will become a star. (True or False)
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true
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Polaris, the polar star, is on the end of the handle of the big dipper. (True or False)
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false
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The greater the apparent star, the brighter the star. (True or False)
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false
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More massive stars tend to use up their supply of hydrogen more rapidly than less massive stars. (True or False)
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true
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When a massive star exhausts its supply of hydrogen fuel, it becomes a supernova. (True or False)
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false
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Red giants are enormously bright because they’re extremely hot. (True or False)
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false
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Which of the following star colors has the highest temperature?
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blue
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How old is the universe?
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13.7 billion years
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The difference in brightness between two stars is related to?
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all of these
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The expected life span of a star the size of the sun is?
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10 billion years
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Compared to a star like the sun, a blue white star?
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has a higher surface temperature
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The eventual fate of our sun is to become a?
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white dwarf
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The milky way galaxy is?
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spiral
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Compared to a magnitude 1 star, a star with a magnitude of 2 is?
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less than one tenth as bright
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In which part of a newborn star does the fusion reaction occur?
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the core
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The sun has hundreds of times more mass that all the rest of the solar system. (True or False)
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true
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Venus, the sister planet to the earth, has an atmosphere whose composition is similar to that of earth. (True or False)
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false
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The density of planet Saturn is so low that it would never float in water. (True or False)
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true
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A comet’s tail always trails behind it throughout its journey through the solar system. (True or False)
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true
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An asteroids forming a belt between orbits of Mars and Jupiter were prevented from forming a planet by the strong gravitational field of Jupiter. (True or False)
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true
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Which planets have no moons?
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Mercury and Venus
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The earth, other planets, and the rest of the solar system formed?
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billions of years ago from elements created in many previously existing stars
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Which planet has its axis of rotation tilted so much that it appears to rotate on its side?
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Uranus
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Most of the mass of the solar system is found in the?
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sun
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The atmosphere of Venus is predominantly?
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carbon dioxide
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Which of the following about Jupiter is not true?
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Because Jupiter is mostly hydrogen, its only slightly more massive than the earth.
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Which of the following planets does not belong with the others?
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Jupiter
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The average temperature of the earth is slightly lower in January because then the earth is at its greatest distance from the sun. (True or False)
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false
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A person traveling westward across the international date line gains a day. (True or False)
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true
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The finding of the Apollo space missions to the moon support the idea that the moon formed from the impact of the earth with a very large object. (True or False)
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true
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During which month of the year does the earth receive the most average energy from the sun?
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January
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The fact that there are seasons on the earth is largely due to?
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the tilt of the earth’s axis
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Evidence that the earth is rotating is provided by?
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the motion of a pendulum
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We always see the same side of the moon because?
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the moon’s periods of rotation and revolution are the same
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Which face of the moon can we see during a solar eclipse?
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new
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If you were flying a jet across three time zones and your watch read 12 noon when you landed, you should set it to?
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3pm
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A lunar eclipse can only occur during what phase of the moon?
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full
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The temperature of the surface of Venus is hot enough to melt lead. (True or False)
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true
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It is impossible to theorize about the formation of the solar system because no other planetary systems can be observed. (True or False)
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false
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Photographs of the surface of mars provides evidence that liquid water once flowed on its surface. (True or False)
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true
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Which of the following statements about the length of the planets day is true?
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none of these are true
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Which of the following is true about the surface of Mars?
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It is much too cold for liquid water to exist
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For the last 3 billion years the surface of the moon has been?
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relatively quiet
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Most of the earth’s mass is contained in the?
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inner core
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The principle components of the earth’s atmosphere are nitrogen, oxygen, and..?
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argon
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The theory that explains the widening of the ocean is called?
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sea-floor spreading
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The lower layer of the atmosphere where weather occurs is called the?
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troposphere
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The tectonic plates include Euroasian, African, North American, South American, and?
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pacific
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The moon’s light is from the?
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sun
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The phases of the moon last night was between new and 1st quarter. it is called?
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crescent
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The tides are caused by the gravitation pull of the ___ on earth?
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moon
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The phases of the moon depend on where the ___ is located?
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all of these
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The science of what matter is made of and how it changes?
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chemistry
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Matter
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anything that has mass and volume
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Element
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substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance
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Atom
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the smallest unit of a substance that behaves like that substance
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Example of a gas-liquid mixture
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carbonated drink
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All changes of state in matter require what?
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energy
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The Law of Conservation of Mass
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mass cannot be created or destroyed
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These tell you how something will react with other substances
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chemical property
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The amount of matter in a substance
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mass
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The amount of space a substance takes up
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volume
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Solution
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homogeneous mixture
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Three different states of the same homogeneous substance
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water ice and steam
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Pure Substances
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elements and compouds
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Physical intensive property
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any physical property other than length
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Physical extensive property
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length of a substance
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Chemical property
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properties due to a reaction
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Milikan
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oil drop experiment (charge of electron)
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Rutherford
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Gold foil (nucleus) mostly empty space (matter)
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Thomson
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electron charge to mass
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Democratis
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atom
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Lavoisier
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Law of conservation of mass
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Not a part of Dalton’s theory
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isotopes of the same elements have different masses
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Atoms have no charge because…?
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have an equal number of protons and electrons
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Atomic Nucleus
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made up of protons and neutrons and has a positive charge
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The mass of the proton is…
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more than the mass of an electron
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A solution is a heterogeneous mixture of two or more substances. (true or false)
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false
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When no more of a solute will dissolve in a solvent, the solution is saturated. (true or false)
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true
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The solubility of a gas in water decreases as the water temperature increases. (true or false)
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true
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The presence of a solute molecules makes a solution freeze at a lower temperature than a pure solvent. (true or false)
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true
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Hydrogen bonding in water accounts for…
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all of these
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Polar compounds such as alcohol would be expected to be…
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more soluble in water than in non-polar solvents
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Water solutions of ionic substances that conduct electricity are
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electrolytes
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Basic solution
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feel slippery
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Acidic solutions
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all of these are true
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A bottle of whiskey contains 40% alcohol by volume. This means whiskey contains 40 mL of alcohol in every
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100mL of whiskey
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When a solvent is cooled, It will dissolve?
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more gas
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A hydrogen bond is
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a force between a hydrogen atom of one polar and another polar molecule
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In liquid solutions, the solute could be…
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a solid liquid or gas
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a solution with a pH of 2
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is one tenth as acidic as a solution with the pH of 1
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What do solutions of acids, bases, and salts all have in common?
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They are electrolytes
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Which of the following will conduct an electric current?
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a water solution of an ionic compound
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Which would have a pH of more than 7?
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sodium hydroxide solution
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When a solution of an acid and a base are mixed together…
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all of these are true
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soap can dissolve in grease because
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it has a non polar and polar end
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a chemical reaction is balanced by changing the
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coefficients