Philosophy 2/24-1

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Who is a philosopher
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Lover and a thinker
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What are common philosophical questions
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Does god exist? What is the meaning of life? What is the relationship between mind and body? What happens when we die? Who am I? What is right and wrong? How can we know anything?
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What is a common branch of philosophy?
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Epistemology, Metaphysics, Logic, Ethics
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What is aesthetics
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The philosophical study of art and the value of judgement about art
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What branch of philosophy does not involve questions related to value
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Metaphysics
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Which of the following is a common myth of philosophy
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Philosophical questions are simply semantic disputes in which no one opinion is better or worse than another
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In philosophy what is an argument
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Giving a reason for belief
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What fallacy is it when argument attacks a person rather than a belief
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Argumentum ad hominum
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What philosophy is it when an argument assumes two opinions
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False dilemma
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Hang em now refers to what philosophy fallace
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Straw man
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What must be a case for an argument to succeed
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The premises must be acceptable and must logically support the conclusion
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What does the branch of philosophy called metaphyics study
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Being
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What does the branch of philosophy called epistemology study
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Knowledge
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What is Thales, Anazoragas, Anagziminar known as
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The Malaysians
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According to Theano what did patheragos claim
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Everything is in accordance with numbers
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What was the essence of reality for Heraclitus
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Change
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What is reality according to Parmenides
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One and unchanging
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What is the cause of change for Empedocles
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Love and strife
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What did Anaxagoras do
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He introduced philosophy to Athens, and he distinction between mind and matter
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What did the Atomists do?
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Distinguished between atomic properties and relational properties
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What is a theme common to all the pre-Socratics
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The experienced world is a manifestation of a more fundamental underlying reality
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What did Socrates hope to achieve by practicing the Socratic Method
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He wanted to discover adequate definitions that would give knowledge to the essential nature of things
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Where did forms exist according to Plato
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In a separate immaterial realm
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How are the forms apprehended according to Plato
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By reason
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Which would Plato have agreed with
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The senses are source of error, illusion, and ignorance
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What were Platos three famous theories
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Knowledge, love becoming, and the theory of forms
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When the Delphi oracle pronounced Socrates to be the wisest of the people, Socrates thought that the pronouncement referred to what fact that he was
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Aware of his own ignorance
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Three of Plato’s well known dialog
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Apoloy, The Republic, and Meno
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Aristotle’s primary area of interest was
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Metaphysics
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One thing Aristotle didn’t have in one of his ten basic categories he used to describe ways in which humans think about
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Weight
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How many souls did Aristotle believe humans had
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3
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Aristotle’s work included
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Metaphysics, poetics, and nicomoucein ethics
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What is a thing according Aristotle
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A specific form in a particular matter
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What does Aristotle mean by the efficient cause of thing
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Where it came from
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Formal cause is
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To say what a thing is
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Aristotle on the issue of change stated
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It is movement from potentially to actuality
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An example of what Aristotle called a universal
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Was the property of being red
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What is syllogism
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A logical fallacy
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Which is an ancient philosophical tradition Platonist represent
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Apicuirism
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St. Augustine rejected this neo-platonic claim
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The highest reality i one the indescribable god
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Peroneous skeptics maintained
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Nothing can be known
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What is asserted by the principle of non-contradition
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A proposition of contradictory opposite cannot be true at the same time
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Which argument did St.Augustine Academic to refute academic skepticism
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When we are in doubt we at least know exist as a doubter
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What did Hypatia think about the study of math and astronomy
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She asserted they are part of life and a means of testing implications of platonic and neo-platonic metaphysics and epistomology
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How did St.Thomas distinguish philosophy from theology
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Stated philosophy is based on reason while theology is based on faith and revolution
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Thomas accepted the view that
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a physical thing is matter plus form
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The one thing Thomas disagreed with Aristotle on
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Was the essence of a thin is the same as its existence
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What did St.Thomas maintain regarding the human soul?
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Asserted that the soul is a direct creation of god
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Descartes said what was clarity and distinctness
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Truth
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In terms of establishing existence, Descartes said Cogito Ergo Sum
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I thin therefore I am
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Thomas Hobs believed
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All psychological states derived from perception
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Ann Conway believed
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God is an eternal creator
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Ann Conway advocated for what sort of metaphysics
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Monodology
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What did Benedict Spinoza think a person is
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A mode of god and nature
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Why is there no mind body interaction for Spinoza
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He believed the minds and bodes are aspects of infinite substance
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What did John Locke believe about perception
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He asserted knowledge of external world is based on the fact that some of the ideas we get through sense impressions which represent how things are in the world
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What did George Berkley mean about such things as tables and chairs
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There are no unperceived tables and chairs
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George Berkeley xplanation on the facts of rocks and trees continue to exist even when humans on’t perceive them was the basis that
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God also percieves them that’s why they continue to exist
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David Hume said what do we directly observe
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Sense impressions
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David Hue on self in answerin a question what is the self
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Hume saw it as a sequence of perceptions
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David Humes, “Why can’t we have cause and effect knowledge.”
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Asserted, we can never observe connection between events
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According to Hume why can’t past experience justify the claims about the future
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It is because we never know whether or not the future will be like the past
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According to Emmanuel Kant’s perception
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The application of organizating principles of mind to sense impressions
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According to Kant, why we can know that all our future experiences will be in space and time
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It is because there are no preconditions of experience based on minds own organizing principles
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What does Kant mean regarding Noumenal world
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Is the world it really is independent of our experince of it
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Why doesn’t Kant think that we can have knowledge in the things in themselves
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He said because the organizing principles of mind do not apply to them
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What is the relationship between being real or knowable
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All reality is knowable
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What is the highest reality for Hegel
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Stated that the infinite thought of thinking itself
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Which philosophical tradition includes existentialism
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continental philosophy
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Which is not a theme in existentialism
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Metaphysics can reveal the reason and purpose of life
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According to Camus how can we give life purpose in purposeless world
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Rebel against absurd
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According to Satre why is man abandoned
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There is no god
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Which best describes what Satre mean by good faith
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It was taking responsibility for choices we make
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Phenomenology originated from which of the following distinctions
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Kant’s distinction between phenomenal and noumenal worlds
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What is the fundamental philosophical question for Camus
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Is there any reason not to commit suicide
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What are 4 branches of Philosophy
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Logic, Espitemology, Metaphysics, and Ethics
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3 Theories of Plato explained
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Theory of Forms: What is truly real is not objects we encounter in sensory experience but rather forms and these can only be grasped intellectually Theory of Knowledge: He was convinced that ethical conduct must be founded on knowledge, and that knowledge must be knowledge of eternal values which are not subject to the shifting and changing impressions of senses or of subjective opinion, but are the same for all men and for peoples of all ages. Theory of love ad becoming: Love is meant to be force that brings all things together and beautiful
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What are the 7 Fallacies
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Switching the burden of proof, Begging the Question, Argumentum ad hominem, Straw man, False dilemma, appeal to emotion, and red herring
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Four forms of causation for Aristotle
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Formal cause (what is a thing), Material cause (what is it made of), Efficient cause (what made it), Final cause (What purpose does it serve)
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Aristotle’s third man argument
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Plato asserted that what ties two circular coins together, what they have in common, is the form of circularity
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3 souls for Aristotle’s unity
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1 Vegetative soul (the source of nourishment and reproduction) 2 Animal soul (the basis of sensation as well as the ability to move) 3 Soul is nous (intelligent or spiritual soul)
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Aristotle’s logic
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Aristotle assumed that the ways in which we think is about reality represents the way reality is
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Define skepticism and name 4 skeptics
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The theory that certain knowledge is impossible. Heraclitus, Cratylus, Xenophanes, and Socrates
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3 main positions regarding universals
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Realism, Nominalism, and idealism
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What is dualism
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This view holds that what exists is either physical or mental, some things such as a human person have both a physical component, add a mental component
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Materialism
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The theory that only physical entities exist and so cale mental things are manifestations of an underlying physical reality
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Idealism
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This view holds that only the mental or spiritual exists
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Cogitu ergo sum
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I think therefore I am
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Parallelism
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There are two parallel and coordinated series of events one mental and the other physical. Interaction between mind and body
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David Hume’s four assumptions
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1. Every claim that something exists 2. Claims can be established only by observation or by casual inference ( you can tell if a car’s engine is knocking) 3. Though, knowledge, belief, conception, and judgement each consists in having ideas 4. All ideas are derived from and are copies of impressions of sense or feelings that is perception
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Theory of immanuel Kant
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Theory of perception: Analytic: all bachelors are unmarried Synthetic: All bachelors are happy
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Difference between Kant and Hume
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Kant saw it as possible to act on reason alone, and whether or not a person acted morally depended on whether they acted on reason alone
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Existentialism
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How an individual can find an authentic existence in this world in which there is no ultimate reason why things happen one way and not another
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Psychoanalysis
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A psychological theory and therapeutic method developed by Sgimund Freud
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10 categories of understanding a things being according to Aristotle
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Judgments, Quantity, Quality, Relationships, Place, Time, Posture, Constitutions, Passivity, and Activity

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