# PHIL 201- Exam 2 Study Prep

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Laws of Logic

Make discourse possible!
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~(P.~P)
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Law of Excluded Middle

Something either is or is not P V ~P
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Law of Identity

Something is what it is P=P
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Undeniable

The laws of Logic
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Premises

Reasons tying to prove one of the other propositions
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Conclusion

The belief that one is trying to support
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Inference

The relationship between the premises and the conclusion
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Validity

refers to the structure of an argument; an argument is considered valid if the conclusion follows from the premises; it is invalid if the conclusion does not follow (non-sequitur).
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Non-Sequitur

The conclusion does not follow / No Inference
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Truth Value

The truth value of propositions in an argument has nothing to do with its validity or strength / The validity or strength has nothing to do with truth value
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Sound

Deduction/ Both are valid and premises are true arguments
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Deduction

A form of logical reasoning in which the aim is to arrive at a conclusion that is logically necessary given the premises
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Syllogism

A logical argument that consists of two premises and a conclusion that is structured according to the certain rules of valid inference that governs the particular syllogism being used
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Syllogism (powerpoint def.)

The formal procedure for writing out a deductive argument
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Categorical proposition

A proposition that affirms or denies something in terms of two categories: subject and predicate.
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Disjunctive proposition

A proposition which affirms or denies something in terms of two alternatives (known as alternants) in the form of an “either/or” statement.
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Alternant

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Hypothetical proposition

A conditional statement that affirms or denies something in terms of an antecedent (usually expressed as “If”) and a consequent (usually expressed as “then”).
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Antecedent

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Consequent

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Pure Hypothetical Syllogism

Both of the premises, as well as the conclusion, are conditionals. For such a conditional to be valid the antecedent of one premise must match the consequent of the other. What one may validly conclude, then, is a conditional containing the remaining antecedent as antecedent and the remaining consequent as consequent.
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Mixed Hypothetical Syllogism

One of the premises is an conditional while the other serves to register agreement (affirmation) or disagreement (denial) with either the antecedent or consequent of that conditional. There are thus four possible forms of such syllogisms, two of which are valid, while two of which are invalid.
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Modus Ponens

Means and Methods of affirming the consequent
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Modus Tollens

Means and Methods of denying the consequent
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Denying the Antecedent

If p, then q. Not p. Not q.
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Affirming the Consequent

If p, then q. q. p.
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Induction

form of argument in which the premises give grounds for the conclusion but do not necessitate it
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Method of Generalization

Most Common Type of Inductive Arguments. One gathers together identical particular instances and arrives at some form of generalization
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Method of Analogy

An argument from analogy occurs when one observes relevantly similar particulars and attempts to arrive at a probable conclusion
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Probability Calculus

Reasons on the basis of set rules in determining the likelihood of something occuring given all possible variables
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Statistical Reasoning

Based n the gathering of sample population and arriving at average percentages and general trends
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Causal Inference

Begins with observed effect and reasoned back to its cause
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Hypothetical Reasoning

Begins with an unknown explanation. A hypothesis is fomulates and tested with the goal of explaining the problem
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Hasty Generalization

Basing a conclusion on an insufficient number of particulars or amount of evidence
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Sweeping Generalization

Applying a generalization to a specific case to which the rule does not apply; treating a general principle as a hard and fast rule
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False Analogy

Drawing an analogy between two things that are not similar in relevant areas.
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Fallacy

An error in logic
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False Cause

Assuming a causal relation when there is little or no evidence of one.
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Hypostatization

Abstract terms are used concretely without clarification, usually through personification: “Morality is culturally determined”, “Death with dignity”
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Equivocation

Terms change their meaning in the middle of the argument: “A woman has a right to have an abortion, therefore it is right for her to do so.”
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Begging the Question

the main question or issue is not really addressed, but is ignored or evaded.
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Bifurcation

Only two options are presented when other options are possible
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An illegitimate double standard is applied that distorts the facts
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attacking the person who is making the argument rather than the argument itself: “He’s a liberal, therefore his argument obviously makes no sense.”
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appealing to the fact that a belief is popular or commonly believed as evidence for its truthfulness: “No one believes anymore that you should wait for marriage to have sex.”
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Rhetoric

the art of persuasive writing and speaking
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Rhetorical Force

The attempt to persuade someone to adopt a belief based psychological or emotive response one has towards the idea.
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Euphemism

expressing a proposition in a favorable or good light; using positive imagery to portray a person or situation
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Dysphemism

expressing a proposition in a negative or bad light; using negative imagery to portray a person or situation
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Weaselers

A manner of phrasing an expression that allows the speaker to appear to make a direct claim while actually being evasive, vague, or ambiguous making the claim to be empty of meaning.
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Downplayers

A manner of phrasing a proposition that devalues or dismisses a claim to make it look less important than originally conceived. It is often accomplished by inserting a dismissive term: “just”, “so-called” or just putting term in quotations: “He thinks he’s a “scholar””
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Stereotypes

A cultural belief about a specific social group’s characteristics, usually expressed in a simplified or exaggerated manner; can be positive or negative.
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Innuendo

The power of indirect or subtle suggestion to disparage (say something negative about) a person, event, or thing.
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AKA Complex Question. A question whose purpose is to imply something rather than state it; similar to an innuendo but comes in the form of a question.
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Hyperbole

an extravagant overstatement or exaggeration normally not to be taken literally, but can influence one’s thinking that a situation is better or worse than it is.
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Proof Surrogate

the suggestion that there exists legitimate evidence or authority for a claim while never actually citing it
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Cultural Bias

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Belief Bias

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Confirmation Bias

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Availability Heuristic