Personal and Community Health chapter 1-4 review

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Wellness
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Which of the following describes the process in which one adopts patterns of behavior that lead to greater life satisfaction?
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employment status
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Which of the following is considered a social determinant of health?
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air quality
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According to the ecological model of health and wellness, which of the following is a factor in a person’s natural physical environment
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being aware of hereditary risks and avoiding unhealthy environments and behaviors
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Which of the following best demonstrates an ecological model of health and wellness?
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The sequencing of bases within a gene is of little significance
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Which of the following statements about cells and genes is FALSE?
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four bases
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Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, includes which of the following?
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a mutation
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When a change occurs in a gene, it is called
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alleles
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Alternative forms of the same gene are called
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Basic information for each relative in the family health tree includes date of birth, major diseases, age, and cause of death
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Which of the following statements is true regarding family health trees?
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a family member with multiple cancer
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What information found in a family health tree indicates that a disease might have a genetic link?
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multifactorial
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Genetic disorders caused by multiple genes interacting with the environment are called
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Random error in the formation of ovum or sperm causes heart disease.
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Heart disease is an example of a multifactorial illness. Which of the following does NOT support this statement?
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to discover your personal health risks and strengths
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What is the main purpose of creating a family health tree
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change happens as a process
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The Stages of Change Model of health behavior change emphasizes that
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lifestyle
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The aspect of personal health that is most within your control is
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action stage
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Adam’s sister lectures him daily about the threat his smoking poses to his health. She argues that, if he quits, he would improve both his health and his athletic performance. Adam knows his sister is right, but according to the Stages of Change Model, he will actually quit smoking when he reaches the
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preparation
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Mackenzie resolves to start exercising three times a week when her membership at a local gym begins, in two weeks. In which stage of change in the Transtheoretical Model is Mackenzie operating?
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contemplation
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In which stage of change in the Transtheoretical Model does an individual intend to change a specific health behavior within the next six months
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I can do it
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Which of the following statements best illustrates a sense of self-efficacy
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I will eat my meals on time and limit myself to one snack daily.
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Which of the following best illustrates a SMART goal
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Beginning next week, I will work out three days a week.
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Which of the following best illustrates an action step?
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obtain and successfully use health information.
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The basic definition of health literacy refers to one’s ability
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All health risks can be avoided
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Which of the following statements about health risks is FALSE?
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reduce researcher bias
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The purpose of making a clinical study double-blind is to
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Clinical studies attempt to establish cause-and-effect relationships.
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Which of the following statements is true concerning medical research studies?
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an educational institution
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Of the following, the best type of website on which to research health issues is one that is sponsored by
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common health-related resources.
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One of the hallmarks of community health promotion is its emphasis on improving
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preventing the spread of disease-carrying insects
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Which of the following best illustrates a public health measure?
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Inhibit the development of diseases
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What is the major goal of primary disease-prevention efforts
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Focus on promoting health for older individuals.
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Which of the following is NOT a specific national health objective of Healthy People 2020?
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include both social and environmental determinants
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Healthy People 2020 places increased emphasis on “health determinants,” which
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28
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In 2010 approximately ________ percent of the U.S. population were members of racial or ethnic minority groups
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higher rates of cancer, infant mortality, and alcoholism
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In general, what can American ethnic minority populations expect concerning their health, as compared to the general population
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Wellness
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The term _______ is generally defined as the process of adopting patterns of behavior that can lead to improved health and life satisfaction
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Health
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The WHO defined ________ in 1947 as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.
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occupational
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The dimensions of wellness include the physical, the emotional, the intellectual, the spiritual, the interpersonal or social, the environmental, and the _______.
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Ecological
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The ________ model of health and wellness addresses the interrelationships between individuals and their environment.
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built
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Your health is affected by your ________ physical environment (including schools, sanitation, and transportation) and your natural physical environment (such as air and water quality).
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determinants
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External environmental conditions that can be altered by social and health policies and programs are known as the social ________ of health.
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Gene
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The series of four bases arranged to form a distinct message, located at a precise point along a chromosome, is called a(n) ________.
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DNA
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The tightly-coiled molecule within the nucleus of a cell that contains an entire set of genetic instructions is called deoxyribonucleic acid, or ________.
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Helix
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The two chains that DNA consists of are joined in a double ________ structure.
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chromosomes
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Of our 23_______ pairs, 22 are the same for men and women.
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X
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Females have two ________ chromosomes; males have only one.
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mutation
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Changes that occur during the process of parents passing genes to their children are called ________.
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Traits
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A single-gene _________, such as whether earlobes are detached or attached, is determined by either a dominant or a recessive gene
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Recessive
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A mutated gene that is not expressed when paired with a healthy gene is called ________.
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multifactorial
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A health condition caused by interactions among one or more genes and the environment is called a(n) ________ disorder.
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Tree
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An illustration of an individual’s family genetic history is commonly referred to as a family health ________.
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health belief
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The ________ Model of behavior change uses the constructs of perceived susceptibility, seriousness of consequences, benefits of action, and barriers to action.
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stages of change
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The Transtheoretical Model is also referred to as the ________ Model.
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spiral
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The process of change is more like a(n) ________ than a linear progression.
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contemplation
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In the Transtheoretical Model, a person in the ________ stage intends to change a specific health behavior within the next six months
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Termination
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In the Transtheoretical Model, a sixth stage called ________ occurs when the new behavior is firmly entrenched in a person’s lifestyle.
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Self-efficacy
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The term ________ refers to an internal state in which a person feels competent to perform a task.
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behavior
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Signing a(n) ________ change contract is one of the most effective strategies for change.
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healthy
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The ________ People Initiative sets national health objectives aimed at improving the quality of life for all Americans.
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Ethnicity
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The sense of identity that individuals draw from a common ancestry, as well as a common national, religious, tribal, language, or cultural origin, is referred to as ________.
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culture
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The text uses the term ________ to mean a shared pattern of values, beliefs, language, and customs within a group.
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social
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The more accurate way to view race is as a(n) ________ category, rather than a biological one.
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Lifestyle
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Most ethnic and racial minority populations in the U.S. have significantly higher ________ risk factors, such as high-fat diets, lack of exercise, and more exposure to environmental toxins.
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positive psychology.
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The approach to psychological research that, instead of studying mental illness, studies such things as happiness, character strengths, and healthy emotions is called
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temperance
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Research on positive psychology has led scientists to identify six virtues that “enable human thriving.” One of these is
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a state of transcendence and well-being
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The highest level of Maslow’s needs hierarchy is characterized by
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their basic needs are met
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The basic premise of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory is that people will pursue their highest potential when
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physiological needs; safety and security; love and belongingness; self-esteem; self-actualization.
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In the hierarchy of needs pyramid, the order of human needs progresses as follows:
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optimism
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Which of the following is most strongly associated with better mental health
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emotional
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Which type of intelligence involves self-awareness and sensitivity to others?
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high self-esteem
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Mentally healthy people tend to have
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social support
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Which of the following is a key to reducing stress and leading a mentally healthy life?
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in control of your circumstances
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You are demonstrating a sense of self-efficacy when you believe you are
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resilience
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The ability to bounce back from an adverse event is known
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early twenties
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Your brain is not fully developed until you reach your
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fatigue
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A person suffering from depression commonly experiences
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major depressive disorder
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Jorge has always been a top student, but for the past couple of months he no longer enjoys school and can’t concentrate, so his grades are far lower than they could be. With which of the following conditions is Jorge most likely to be diagnosed?
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bipolar
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Jenna sometimes “shops till she drops,” meaning she shops on an exhilarating high until she crashes into a major depressive episode. Jenna’s behavior is most common to which disorder?
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obsessive-compulsive disorder
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Geoff showers four or five times during the course of a day and washes his hands almost every time he touches something. Geoff’s behavior most closely resembles symptoms of
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Brain scanning technologies reveal abnormalities in the brains of people with schizophrenia.
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Which of the following statements about schizophrenia is true?
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schizophrenia
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Scott, age 24, has withdrawn from most social contact and stopped dressing appropriately. When you speak with him, his conversation tends to make no sense. Of the following options, Scott is most likely to be diagnosed with
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7
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According to the spring 2012 National College Health Assessment, ________ percent of college students seriously considered suicide in the past year.
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social isolation
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Which of the following is a warning sign or event that often precedes a suicide attempt?
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tolerance
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When a person with a physiological dependence on a substance needs higher and higher doses to achieve a high, that person is experiencing the characteristic signs
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cerebral cortex
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Which part of the brain activates the stress response?
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physiological changes
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The stress response is a series of ________ that occur in the face of a threat
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autonomic nervous system
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Which system controls our involuntary, unconscious actions
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increased metabolism
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Of the following bodily changes, which is associated with the stress response?
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how organisms respond physiologically to stressors
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Selye proposed the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) model to
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alarm
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The ________ stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome is characterized by a reduction in immune system functioning that will be temporary if the stress is over quickly.
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exhaustion
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The body can no longer keep up with the demands of the stressor in the ________ stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome
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chronic high blood pressure
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Long-term exposure to stress can damage the cardiovascular system by causing
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not apparent until a year after she returned home
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Iraq war veteran Mallory was diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder based on the fact that her symptoms were
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adjustment disorder
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In which of the following would a response to a stressor continue for a longer period than would normally be expected?
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Type A
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An achievement orientation is associated with which personality type?
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Type A
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Which of the following personality types describes people who are impulsive, need to get things done quickly, and live their lives on a time schedule
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hostility
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Among Type A individuals, the trait that appears to be most harmful to health is
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Type B
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Kristi’s friends all describe her as cool and not easily frustrated. Kristi most likely has which type of personality type?
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“My new professor is difficult, but I know that if I work hard enough I’ll learn a lot from her.”
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Which of the following statements displays “hardiness
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Hardiness
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________ is a style of coping with stress that features a positive outlook, a sense of commitment, and a sense of control.
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risk of developing stress-related illnesses
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Holmes and Rahe created the Social Readjustment Scale to measure a person’s
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you don’t have a period of recovery.
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Daily hassles, such as arguments and car problems, can cause health problems when
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30
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Based on one survey of college students, approximately ________ percent feel that stress has affected their academic performance.
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overeat or eat unhealthy “comfort” foods
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During times of high stress, college students tend
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yoga
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The concept central to ________ is to calm the mind, cleanse the body, and raise awareness through activities involving posture, breathing, and body and mind awareness.
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Affirmations
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________ are positive thoughts that one can write down or say to oneself to balance negative thoughts
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biofeedback
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Gathering of information about your heart rate, breathing, and skin temperature in order to recognize stress response symptoms is a technique referred to as
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t’ai chi
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The concept central to ________ is to promote the flow of life energy throughout the body
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denial and isolation; anger; bargaining; depression; acceptance
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According to Kübler-Ross, when a person believes he or she is in the process of dying, he/she passes through five stages. Which of the following is the linear order originally presented by Kübler-Ross?
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eustress
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Which of the following is NOT a symptom of grief
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separation
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Kathleen’s brother passed away six months ago. Recently, Kathleen has been imagining herself having conversations with her brother as if he were still alive. What phase of bereavement is she most likely experiencing?
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disorganization
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It’s been two years since Frank’s mother passed away but he still finds that he has trouble concentrating on anything for too long and often feels tired. What phase of bereavement is Frank most likely experiencing?
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Eat well, exercise, and get plenty of rest
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Which of the following is recommended for someone who has just lost a loved one
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depression
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Bereavement typically involves four phases. Which of the following is NOT one of the four phases?
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mental
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The psychological, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual aspects of our lives are known as our ________ health.
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emotional
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Goleman’s term for a person’s social competence, self-control, empathy, and motivation is ________ intelligence
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resilience
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The ability to bounce back from a negative event is called ________.
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optimistic
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Someone who tends to view problems as temporary and specific can be said to have a(n) ________ explanatory style.
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efficacy
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If you possess self ________, meaning you believe you have some control over a situation, you are much more likely to be successful.
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mood
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Depressive and bipolar disorders are classified as ________ disorders.
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weeks
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Major depressive disorder is characterized by the experience of one or more episodes of depression lasting at least two ________.
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bipolar
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The occurrence of manic episodes that alternate with depressive episodes is called ________ disorder
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panic attack
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Palpitations, sweating, shortness of breath, and/or chest pain typify the reaction known as a(n) ________.
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addiction
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________ is the dependence on a substance or behavior.
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phobia
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A specific ________ is an intense fear of an activity, situation, or object.
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obsessive-compulsive
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The most significant features of ________ disorder are intrusive, persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that cause intense anxiety or distress.
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schizophrenia
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The severe mental disorder characterized by disorganized and disordered thinking and perceptions, bizarre ideas, hallucinations, and impaired functioning is called ____schizophrenia____.
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stressors
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A(n) ________ is an agent that elicits a stress reaction.
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eustress
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Positive stress is also called ________.
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fight-or-flight
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The ________ response, or stress response, prepares us with a burst of energy to deal with threats or danger.
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homeostasis
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Stress may be defined as any challenge to the body’s systems that challenges the body’s ability to stay in balance, a condition called ________.
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sympathetic
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During the fight-or-flight response, the ________ branch of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for initiating a series of changes in the body, such as increasing heart rate.
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adrenal
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The ________ glands release the hormones cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine into the bloodstream.
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epinephrine
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Another name for adrenaline is ________.
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relaxation
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The turning-off of the body’s response to stress is called the ________ response.
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chronic
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The stress response itself can become damaging when people live in a state of ________ stress.
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General Adaptation Syndrome
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Selye’s model for the physiological changes associated with the stress response is called the ________ (GAS).
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A
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People who tend to be impulsive, who need to get things done quickly, and who are sometimes considered hostile, competitive, or impatient, are Type ________ individuals.
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hostility
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Some people display a great deal of ________, which is defined as an ongoing accumulation of anger and irritation.
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guided imagery
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The visualization technique for stress reduction that uses relaxing images to bring about a relaxation response is called ________, or visualization.
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yoga
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The ancient Hindu practice of ________ includes physical, mental, social, and spiritual components.
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Anger
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According to Kübler-Ross, the second stage that individuals pass through when they have been diagnosed with a terminal illness is ________.
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acceptance
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In Kübler-Ross’s view, the last stage people go through when they believe they are dying is ________.
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separation
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The second stage people go through after the loss of a loved one is ________.
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True
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Most young adults have a circadian rhythm that tells them to fall asleep later in the evening and to wake up earlier in the morning than older adults.
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TRUE
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Restoration and growth take place during the deepest sleep stages.
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TRUE
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A well-rested person will fall asleep as soon as his or her head hits the pillow at night, and a sleep deprived person will need 15 to 20 minutes to fall asleep.
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TRUE
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Sleeping one hour less than your body needs each night for a week feels to your body like staying up all night
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FALSE
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Attempting to cancel out sleep debt by sleeping longer on the weekend is a viable solution to decreasing weekday sleep deprivation
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FALSE
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Melatonin is naturally secreted by the pineal gland in response to darkness; it lowers body temperature and causes drowsiness
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FALSE
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Over the course of a night, an individual spends more time in REM sleep than in NREM sleep
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TRUE
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If a person is awakened during stage 1 of NREM sleep, he or she will often deny having been asleep
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TRUE
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Most of an individual’s deep sleep takes place in the first third of the night
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FALSE
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Although dreams may occur in all stages of sleep, they generally happen in stages 3 and 4 of NREM sleep
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TRUE
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When dreaming, an individual has periods of no muscle tone or movement, except for eyes, diaphragm, nasal membranes, and erectile tissue
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TRUE
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Memory can be impaired by missing the REM sleep periods that come later in the sleep cycle
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FALSE
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Typically, an individual experiences one sleep cycle each night
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FALSE
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The structure of sleep is essentially the same for men and women
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FALSE
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With advancing age, people may experience a reduction in deep sleep and REM sleep, along with more NREM stage 1 sleep

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