patterns in periodic table

how are elements in the same period arranged?

Each sequential element has one more proton and one electron


(as you go from left to right)

how are elements in the same group related ?
they have a same valence config & have similar chemical properties
grp 1A is called
alkali metals
grp 2a is called
alkali earth metals
B,Si,Ge, As,Sb,Te,Po are called
C,N,O,P,S,Se are called
non metals
Grp 7A are called?
Grp 8A is called
inert(noble) gases
effective nuclear charge def

as the nucleus becomes ↑ positive,

all electrons experience a stronger pull toward the center.


“how strong a particular element pulls electrons”

Why do cations vs (anions /neutral) have a higher effective nuclear charge?

cations: have more protons than electrons, therefore they are strongly attracted to electrons

(aka they really want to get rid of their positive charge).


anions: have more elecs will have a slightly lower effective nuclear charge.


neutral: have an equal # of protons and elecs

(have the lowest eff. nuc charge)

Who has a larger effective nuclear charge(Zeff):

Na or Mg?


effective nuclear charge increaes as you go across elements in the same period.

Who will have a bigger prinicipal quantum number H or Fr?

whos electrtons will be held less tightly?

Fr ;

as you go  DOWN a grp prinicipal quantum number increases

its  valence e- will be held less tightly to nucleus


Tell who has a bigger atomic radius K or Mn?

K ;

atomic radii decreases as you go across a period

(recall zeff increases)

Ionization energy/potential (IE) def

energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion


(this requires energy (endothermic))

If the effective nuclear charge is high :

describe the location of the valence e-

the ionization energy

the electron affinity


high zeff=

valence e- tightly bound to nucleus

HIGH ionization energy

HIGH electron affinity


(aka it takes it alot energy to remove these electrons)

Why is the second ionization energy always higher than the 1st ionization energy?

Recall an element doesn’t want to have a postive charge it wants to gain e- in order to have a full octet,

so it takes alot more energy to remove the 2nd e- ;b/c the element is becoming increasingly positive.

Why do grps 1 ; 2 have low electron affinties?

Why do grp 7 have high?

grps 1 ; 2 (alkali metals ;alkali earth metals) need to lose 1 or 2 e- to achieve their octet.

grp 7 (halogens): only need to gain 1 more e- to achieve their octet so they are the greediest.

electron affinity def

electronegativity def released when atom recieves an electron

*(remember if an element is closer to its octet its energy will be lower hence released , that is a very good thing)


2. is a measure of the attractive force that an atom will excert in an electron in a chemical bond, aka its attraction for bonding electrons

what is another name for electronegativity?
nuclear positivity
True or False: metals have a low density ; high melting points

metals have a high density

high melting point

For metals in general give high/low for the following:

zeff;(effective nuclear charge)


atomic radius

ionization energy

;zeff;(effective nuclear charge)


;atomic radius

;ionization energy

;What do the previous characterisitcs allow metals to do?
donate one or more electrons
Why are metals good conductors of heat and electricity?
their valence electrons are not bound tightly, they can move freely.

  1. For non metals in general give high/low for the following:

    zeff;(effective nuclear charge)


    electron affinity

    atomic radius

    ionization energy

zeff;(effective nuclear charge)

;electronegativity,electron affinity

;atomic radius

;ionization energy

True or False:

Non metals are good conductors of electricity and heat

Which metals are the most reactive?
alkali and alkali earth
alkali metals typically have an oxidation state of?


(they often lose 1 e- to complete their octet)

what is the oxidation state of alkaline earth metals


(they like to lose 2 electrons in order to complete their ‘octet’)

“full outer shell”

halogen oxidation state


(prefer to gain 1 e- to complete their octet)

*remember they have 7 electrons

true or false: halogens have the highest electronegativities
yes, remember they only need one more e- to complete their octet

Noble gases:

Why are they stable?

tell high/low:

ionization energy


their valence shell is complete (8e-)


;ionization energy

almost zero ;electronegativites

describe the oxidation states of transition metals

give 2 ex

transition metals have many positive oxidation states

Fe: +1 ,+2

Mn: +2,+3,+6,+7

transition metals have many positive oxidation states, what does this allow them to do?

form many differnt ionic compounds

ex hydration complexes (water)

highly colored solutes and compounds(enchances the low solubility of some compounds);

hemogloblin has what significance regarding this chapter?
hemogloblin features Fe which changes it state in order to carry out its fcn.

Why does P have a lower electron affinity than Si?

(this goes agaist the periodic table trend )

P’s electronegativity gives a very stable half filled p oribital


Si only needs 1 more electron to fill its p orbital and therefore is very greedy.

the grp next to the halogens is called

which will have a bigger atomic radius?

anion or cation vs a neutral atom

K- (bigger)

than K

b/c its has gained more e-

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