PATHO FINAL CHAPTERS 21, 25, 27, 28

question

What is the most common cause of endocrine abnormalities?
answer

benign tumor
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Choose the statement that applies to Type I diabetes mellitus
answer

onset often occurs during childhood
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Which of the following does NOT usually develop as a complication of diabetes?
answer

osteoporosis
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Why is amputation frequently a necessity in diabetics?
answer

necrosis and gangrene in the feet and legs
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Which one of the following develops hypoglycemia more frequently?
answer

Type I diabetics
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Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes diabetes insipidus?
answer

deficit of ADH
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Which of the following applies to acromegaly?
answer

It results from excessive secretion of GH.
question

Which of the following may cause goiter?
answer

– hyperthyroidism – hypothyroidism – lack of iodine in the diet
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Which signs are typical of Graves’ disease?
answer

exophthalmos, heat intolerance, and restlessness
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Characteristics of Cushing’s syndrome include all of the following EXCEPT:
answer

staring eyes with infrequent blinking
question

What is caused by hyperparathyroidism?
answer

bone demineralization
question

Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidney?
answer

production of albumin
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Which of the following describes the normal flow of urine?
answer

collecting duct to the renal pelvis to the ureter to the bladder
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Which statement about the bladder is TRUE?
answer

Three openings from the urinary bladder form the trigone
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What would be the long-term effects of chronic infection or inflammation of the kidneys?
answer

gradual necrosis, fibrosis, and development of uremia
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Which of the following is a predisposing factor to bladder cancer?
answer

exposure to chemicals and cigarette smoke
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Which of the following is related to Wilms’ tumor?
answer

a genetic defect
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Which of the following is a significant indicator of renal insufficiency?
answer

increased serum urea and creatinine
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The normal pH of urine is:
answer

4.5- 8.0
question

Wilms’ tumor is:
answer

an encapsulated mass in one kidney
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Reduced urine output resulting from inflammation and necrosis of the tubules is called:
answer

oliguria
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For patients with bladder cancer, the bladder should be _____________ during whole-bladder radiation.
answer

empty
question

The most common type of kidney tumor is:
answer

Adenocarcinoma
question

Which of the following may result from cryptorchidism?
answer

infertility and testicular cancer
question

Which of the following applies to benign prostatic hypertrophy?
answer

manifestations include hesitancy, dribbling, and frequency
question

Why does frequency occur with benign prostatic hypertrophy?
answer

incomplete emptying of the bladder
question

Which of the following is the common first site for metastasis from prostatic cancer?
answer

bone
question

What is a useful serum marker during treatment for prostatic cancer?
answer

prostate-specific antigen
question

Which of the following is a common complication of leiomyomas?
answer

abnormal bleeding such as menorrhagia
question

Which of the following refers to fibrocystic breast disease?
answer

progressive development of fluid-filled cysts and fibrous tissue
question

Which of the following applies to carcinoma of the breast?
answer

Tumor cells may demonstrate estrogen receptors on the membrane.
question

Which is considered to be the stage of carcinoma in situ in cervical cancer?
answer

noninvasive severe dysplasia
question

What is a major predisposing factor to cervical cancer?
answer

infection with HPV
question

What is a significant early sign of endometrial carcinoma?
answer

minor vaginal bleeding or spotting
question

Benign prostatic hypertrophy usually progresses to prostatic cancer.
answer

false
question

A hard nodule in the peripheral area of the prostate gland is typical of:
answer

a malignant tumor
question

Testicular cancer usually spreads first to the:
answer

pelvic lymph nodes
question

How do testicular tumors usually present?
answer

hard, painless unilateral mass
question

Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation may be used in cases of breast cancer in order to:
answer

destroy any micrometastasis
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Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis because:
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vague signs and hidden location lead to late diagnosis
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Specific genetic links have been shown for:
answer

testicular cancer breast cancer prostatic cancer
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Adenocarcinomas make up the most common cancers found in the:
answer

prostate
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The most common pathology of malignant tumors of the prostate is:
answer

adenocarcinoma
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The prostate gland is located _________ to the rectum.
answer

anterior
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Define cryptorchidism
answer

maldescent of the testis, this occurs when one of the testes fails to descend into the normal position in the scrotum during the later part of pregnancy
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What is BPH
answer

hyperplasia of the prostatic tissue with the formation of nodules surrounding the urethra; enlargement of the prostate gland common in men over 50 years, generally causes narrowing of the urethra
question

What is the most common malignancy of males in the U.S.
answer

prostate cancer
question

What are the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer?
answer

a hard nodule in the periphery of the gland, often in the posterior lobe, may be detected on digital rectal exam. As the tumor develops, some obstruction occurs producing signs of hesitancy, decreased urine stream, urinary frequency or bladder infection.
question

What diagnostic tests are used in the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer?
answer

for screening: 2 serum markers are helpful in detection: prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase; bones and monoclonal antibody scans are also useful for detection. Complete physical and rectal exams are mandatory, histologic confirmation is needed for diagnosis through a sonography-guided needle biopsy, an MRI may also be used to evaluate patients
question

What are the treatment options for prostate cancer?
answer

Radical prostatectomy (surgery) and radiation (including implants) are the treatment of choice. There is risk of impotence or incontinence. When the tumor is androgen sensitive, removal of the testes or anti-testosterone drug therapy may be suggested to reduce hormonal effects. Chemotherapy is also undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer.
question

What are the signs and symptoms of testicular cancer?
answer

hard, painless, usually unilateral masses. The testis may be enlarged or feel heavy. Eventually there may be a dull aching pain in the lower abdomen. In some cases, a hydrocele or epididymitis may develop because of inflammation or gynecomastia may become evident if hormones are secreted by the tumor.
question

What are fibroids?
answer

benign tumors of the myometrium, the cause of which is unknown, but are hormone dependent. Growth of fibrous or scar tissue related to collagen deposits
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9. What are the management options for prostate cancer?
answer

Radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy; but patients were managed without any specific anticancer treatments until symptoms developed. Because prostate cancer has a slow clinical progression, observation is the reasonable measure for patients older than 75
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10. What is the most common malignancy in women in the U.S.
answer

breast cancer
question

List the accessory structures of the skin
answer

appendages: hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands and the nails
question

What is Mycoses Fungoides? And what are the treatment options?
answer

chronic progressive lymphoma arising in the skin. Initially, the disease stimulates eczema or other inflammatory dermatoses. In advanced cases, ulcerated tumors and infiltrations of lymph node may occur.
question

What are the warning signs of skin cancer?
answer

–a sore throat that does not heal. –A change in the shape, size, color, and texture of a lesion, especially an expanding, irregular circumference or surface. –New moles or odd-shaped lesions that develop –A skin lesion that bleeds repeatedly, oozes fluid, or itches
question

Which type of skin cancer is the most common?
answer

basal cell carcinoma
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Which type of skin cancer is the most lethal?
answer

malignant melanoma
question

What are the ABCD signs that a mole may be Melanoma.
answer

A= (asymmetry: one half of the mole doesn’t match the other half) **per textbook* A= area of the mole in increased B= border is irregular C= color is changed in mole D= diameter of the mole is increased (*newer addition*) E= evolution; has the tumor changed in size, shape, symptoms, surface, or color
question

Describe malignant melanoma
answer

this type of cancer arises from melanocytes and development depends on genetics factors, exposure to UV rays and hormonal influences. It often appears as a multi-colored lesion with irregular borders and grow quickly, extending down into the tissues, metastasizing into the regional lymph nodes and then onward to other organs, leading to poor prognosis
question

What causes actinic keratoses and what type of cancer may it develop into?
answer

the face or upper trunk
question

[Xeroderma] Pigmentosum
answer

rare disease of the skin starting in childhood marked by disseminated pigment discolorations, ulcers, cutaneous, and muscular atrophy and death
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Albinism
answer

results from recessive trait leading to a lack of melanin production. A person with this trait has white skin and hair and lacks pigment in the iris of the eye
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actinic keratosis
answer

warty lesions or areas of red, scaly, patches occurring on the sun-exposed skin of the face or hand of older, light-skinned individuals
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Bowen disease
answer

precancerous dermatosis or carcinoma in situ characterized by the development of pink or brown papules covered with a thickened, horny layer

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