part 2 – Space

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pleurodynia
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a sharph pain that occurs when the inflamed membranes rub against each other with each inhalation
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pleural effusion
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the excess accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
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pyothorax
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the presence of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membranes
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empyema
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refers to a collection of pus in the body
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hemothorax
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a collection of blood in the pleural cavity
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pneumothorax
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the accumulation of air in the pleural space resulting in pressure imbalance that causes the lung to fully or partially collapse
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acute respiratory distress syndrome
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a lung condition usually caused by trauma, pnemonia, smoke or fumes inhaled vomit or sepsis
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sepsis
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systemic bacterial infection in the blood
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atelectasis
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aka collapsed lung, the incomplete expansion of part or all of a lung due to a blockage of the air passages or pneumothorax
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pulmonary edema
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an accumulation of fluid in lung tissue especially in the alveoli
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pulmonary embolism
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the sudden blockage of a pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by an embolus that has formed in the leg or pelvic region
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pneumorrhagia
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bleeding from the lungs
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tuberculosis
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an infectious disease caused by myobacterium tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs, however can also affect other parts of the body
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hemoptysis
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coughing up blood
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latent
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present but not active
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multidrug resistant tuberculosis
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a dangerous form of tuberculosis because the germs have become resistant to the effect of the primary tb drugs
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pneumonia
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a serious inflammation of te lungs in which the alveoli and air passages fill with pus and other fluids
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bronchopneumonia
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a localized form of pneumonia that often affects the bronchioles
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lobar pneumonia
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affects larger areas of the lungs often including one or more sections or lobes of a lung
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double pneumonia
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lobar pneumonia involving both lungs and usually bacterial
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aspiration pneumonia
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can occur when a foreign sustance such as vomit is inhaled into the lungs
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aspiration
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inhalation or dwaring a foreign sustance into the upper respiratory tract
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bacterial pneumonia
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most commonly caused by streprococcus pneumoniae
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pneumoococcal pneumoniae
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the only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination
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community aquired pneumonia
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type of pneumonia that results from contagious infection outside of a hospital or clinic
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hospital acquired pneumonia
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a type of pneumonia contracted during a sTAY IN THE HOSPITAL WHEN A PATIENTS DEFENSES ARE IMPAIRED
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walking pneumonia
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a milder byt longer lasting form of the disease cause by the bacteria mycoplasma pneumoniae
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pneumocytosis pneumonia
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an opportunistic infection caused by the yeast like fungus pneumocytis carinii
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viral pneumonia
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can be caused by several different types of viruses accounts for one third of all pneumonia
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interstitial lung disease
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refers to a group of almost 200 disorders that cause inflammation and scarring of the alveoli and their supporting structures
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interstitial
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relating to spaces in or around a tissue or organ
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pulmonary fibrosis
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the progressive formation of scar tissue in the lung resulting in decreased lung capacity and increased difficulty in breathing
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pneumoconiosis
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any fibrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs oafter prolonged environmental or occupational contact
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anthracosis
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coal miners pneumonoconiosis, black lung disease, caused by coal dust in lungs
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abestosis
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caused by abestos particles in the lungs and usually occurs after working in occupations including quarrying, ceramincs, glasswork, sandblasting
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cyctic fibrosis
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a life threatening genetic disorder where the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucous
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bronchodilators
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keep airways open
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chest percussion
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therapeutic technique to remove excess muscus from the lungs
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lung cancer
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the leading cause of cancer death in the us a condition in which cancer cells from in the tissues of the lungs
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breathing disorders
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descrines abnormal changes in the rate or depth of breathing
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eupnea
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easy or normal breathing
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apnea
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the temporary absence of apontaneous respiration
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bradypnea
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abnormally slow rate of respitration
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cheyne stokes respiration
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an irregular pattern of breathing characterized by alternating rapid or shallow respiraion by slower respiration or apnea
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tachypnea
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abnormally rapid tarte of respitrationmore than 20 breaths per minute
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dyspnea
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aka shortness of breathe, difficult or labored breathing
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hyperpnea
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commonly associated with exertion breathing that is deeper and more rapid than normal than at rest
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hypopnea
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shallow or slow respiration
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hyperventilation
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an abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated with anxiety
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sleep apnea
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a potentially serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep for long enough periods to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels
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obstructive sleep apnea
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caused by muscles at the back of the throat relaxing and narrowing the airways
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snoring
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a symptom of sleep apnea , noisy breathing caused by vibration oft eh soft palate
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expectoration
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the act of coughing up and spitting out saliva, mucus, or other body fluid
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hemoptysis
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the expectoration of blood or blood stained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as a result of pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage
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airway obstruction
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commonoly known as choking, occurs when food or a feoreing object partially or completely blocks the airway and prevents air from entering or leaving the lungs
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anoxia
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the absence of oxygen from the bodys tissues and organs even though there is an adequate flow of blood
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hypoxia
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the condition of having deficient oxygen levels in the bodys tissues and organs however it is less severe than anoxia
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altitude hypoxia
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altitude sickness, condition that can be brought on by the decerased oxygen in higher altitudes
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asphyxia
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the loss of consciouness that occurs when the body cant ge th te oxygen it needs to function
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asphyxation
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state of asphyxia or suffocation
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cyanosis
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a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucus membranes caused by a lack of adequate oxygen supply in the blood
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hypercapnia
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the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
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hypoxemia
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the condition of having low oxygen levels in the blood usually due to respiratory disorders or heart conditions
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respiratory failure
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a condition in which the level of oxygen in the blood becomes dangerously low or the level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high
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smoke inhalation
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damage to the lungs in which particles from a fire coat the alveoli adn prevent the ormal exchange of gases
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sudden infant death syndrome
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the sudden and unexplainable death of an apparently healthy sleeping infant
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respiratory rate
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count of the number of breaths
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respiratory sounds
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provide information about the ocndition of the lungs and pleura
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bronchoscopy
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the vusual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope
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bronchoscope
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a flexible fiber optic device that is passed through the nose or mouth and down the airways
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chest x ray
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a valuable tool for diagnosing pneumonialung cancer and pneumothorax
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laryngoscopy
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the visual examination of the larynx and vocal cords using a laryngoscope
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indirect laryngoscopy
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a simper version of the tes tviewed by shining a light at back of soft palate
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peak flow meter
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an inexpensive handhelt device used to let patients with athma measure air flowing out of the lungs revealing the narrowing of airways before an asthma attack
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polysomnography
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aka sleep study measures physiological activity during sleep and is often performed to detect nocturnal defects
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pulmonary function tests
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group of tests that measure volume and flow of air by using a spirometer
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spirometer
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a recording device that measures the amount of air inhaled or exhaled
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pulse oximeter
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an external monitor plaved on the patient fingertip to measute oxygen saturation level in blood
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phlegm
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a thick musous secreted by the tissues lining respiratory passages
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sputum
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phelegm ejected through the mouth that can be examined for diagnostic purposes
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sputum cytology
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procedure where sample of mucus is coughed up and examined to detect cancer cells
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tuberculin skin testing
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a screening test from tuberculosis in which the skin of the arm is injected with a harmless anitgen
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mantoux PPD skin test
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considered a more accurate skin test form diagnosing tuberculosis
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antitussive
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aka cough medicine, administered to prevent or relieve coughing
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bronchodilator
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medication that relaxes and expands the bronchial passages into the lungs
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metered dose inhaler
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administers a specific amount of medication such as bronchodilator in aerolsol form
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nebulizer
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an electronic device that pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a mist which is then inhaled by the patient
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controller medicines
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long acting medication taken daily to prevent attacks
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quick relief
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TAKEN AT THE FIRST SIGN OF AN ATTACKTO DILATE THE airways and make breathing easier
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endotracheal intubation
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the passage of a tube through the mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway
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functional endoscopic sinus surgery
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a procedure performed using an endoscope in which chronic sinusitis is treaed by enlarging the opening between the nose and the sinus
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laryngectomy
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the surgical removal oft eh larynx
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laryngotomy
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a surgical incision into the larynx perfromed when the upper part of the airway is obstructed
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septoplasty
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the surgical repair or alteration of parts of the nasal septum
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tracheostomy
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the surgical creation ofa stoma into the trachea to insert a temporary tube to facilitate breathing
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tracheotomy
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a procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage
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pneumonectomy
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the surgical removal of all or part of a lung
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lobectomy
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the surgical removal of a lobe of an organ
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wedge resection
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a surgery in which a small wedge shaped piece of cancerous lung tissue is removed
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thoracentesis
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surgical puncture of the ches wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity
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thoracotomy
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the surgical incision into the chest walls to open the pleural cavity for biopsy or treatment
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video assisted throacic surgery
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the use of a thoracoscope to view the inside of the pleural cavity through very small incisions
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thoracoscope
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spezialized endoscope used for treating the thorax
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diaphragmatic breathing
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relaxaation technique used to relieve anxiety
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CPAP machine
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treatment of sleep apnea
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BiPAP
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like CPAP but can be set at higher pressure for inhaling and lower pressure for exhaling
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ambu bag
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an emergency recucsitator used to assist in ventilation
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ventilator
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a mechanjcal device for artificial respiration that is used to replace for patients natural breathing
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supplemental oxygen
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administered when the patient is unable to maintain an adequate oxygen saturation level in the blood from breathing normal air
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nasal cannula
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small tube that divides into two nasal prongs
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rebreather mask
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allows the exhaled breth to be partially reused
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non rebreather mask
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allows higher levels of oxygen to be added to th eair taken in by the patient
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hyperbaric oxygen therapy
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involves breathing pure oxygen in a special chamber that allows air pressure to be raised

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