PA short answer and essay

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Primary principles of good governance include
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– Public participation in government – Respect for rules of laws – Transparency and accountability – Freedom of expression and association – Legitimacy of the government
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Ethical tips for organizations?
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– Develop code of ethics – Communicate code and bake it into a culture top-down – Treat ethics as a process – Creat open lines of communication – Make a good example – Educate employees: frame issues through communication – Value forgiveness
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Common misconduct in organizations
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– Misrepresenting hours worked – Employees treating supervisors – Managements treating employees, customers, vendors and the public – Misuse of organizational assets – Treating report, falsifying records – Sexual harassment – Stealing – Accepting bribes or kickbacks – Withholding information from employees, customers, vendors and the public
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What role should government play in the economy? (1)
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– Maintaining the legal or social framework: create laws, provide courts, provide information and services to help the economy function better, establish monetary system, define and enforce property rights – Maintaining competition: creat and enforce antitrust laws, regulate natural monopoly – Providing goods and services: providing goods and services that markets are unable or unwilling to provide such as national defense
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What role should government play in the economy? (2)
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– Redistributing income: higher income taxes for the rich than the poor, provide social security, aid – Correcting for externalities: taxes to reduce negative externalities such as environmental pollution, subsidies to encourage positive externalities such as education – Stabilizing the economy: use government budget or money supply to promote economic growth, control inflation, and reduce unemployment
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The involvement of civil society as educator and watchdog. What risks involved [EDUCATOR]
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NGO and CSO increasingly participate and contribute to the delivery of educational services, advocating education policies, donors for many education project. Act as service provider, innovator (source of new ideas), critics and advocator (affect the decision of legislators)
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The involvement of civil society as educator and watchdog. What risks involved (WATCHDOG)
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– Play crucial role in evaluating policy and action of the government – holding authority accountable for their action – running corrective: campaign against abuses of power, promote and protect human right – Source of policy advice
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The involvement of civil society as educator and watchdog. What risks involved (RISKS)
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– Lack of human resources and fund – Nepotism and corruption – Conflicts: conflict idea – Risk to existing regulations: huge time and money for reformation
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What are the reasons for the negative image of civil servants? How can this reputation be rescued? To what extent does public administration reform contribute to improving ethical conduct in the public service? (REASON1 )
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External: biased posture of the media (distorted the image of public sectors including negative aspects such as corporativism, corruption, nepotism), deterioration of public services (citizens look for better quality services while public servants don’t prepare to meet the demand for better quality and effiency), oversized government structure, excessive power to legislate (complex proceeding and excessive controls), Bureaucratization
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What are the reasons for the negative image of civil servants? How can this reputation be rescued? To what extent does public administration reform contribute to improving ethical conduct in the public service? (REASON2 )
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Internal: Administrative discontinuity, lack of adequate human resources policies
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How can this reputation be rescued?
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– Public servants must do their duties with a high quality of integrity – Civil servants need to work with conscience, justice and courage to increase the trust of people
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Values that promote ethics in the modern public sectors
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– Abstract ideals that can shape an individual’s thinking and behaviors: moral compass. These ideals can result from: religion, philosophy, family teaching – Instrumental values: the means to an end they become ingrained ways of behaviors: ritual, politness, good habits – Terminal values: financial success, personal independent, power, respect, heaven
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Privatization
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– Definition: Any process aimed at shifting functions and responsibilities on whole or in part from the government to the private sector, almost always involve the transfer of public sector assets – Ownership: Fully transfered or sold to private sectors – Contract structure: Once an asset is sold, the public sector’s involvement is limited to non-existent, except possibly regulator role – Risk: Private sector holds responsibilities in general
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PPP
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– Definition: A contractual agreement between public and private sector for developing, managing, financing, operation of a private facility or service – Ownership: Public sector retains ownership. Through the PPP, public sector sets a parameter or expectation for partnership or private sector uses access to capital market to address public sector’s needs. If PPP doesn’t come to expectation, public sector can regain complete control of assets – Contract structure: flexibility with the structure of the agreement, allowing public and private sector to determine the level of participation to address the need of public sector and maintain public sector ownership – Risk: Shared responsibilities between partners
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5 core values of PA (1,2)
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1. Transparency: allow citizens access to information which is deemed public, the key to fight corruption and unethical behaviors 2. Accountability: It is obligation for individual and organization to account for their activity, accept responsibility for it and disclose the result in a transparent manner. Public sectors are funded by the government –> hold responsibility for informing the operation of the organization
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5 core values of PA (3,4,5)
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3. Ethics: Each public administrator is asked to develop a code of ethic with high integrity and transparency. In order to function properly as an organization, administrators must have a high degree of ethical standard 4. Professionalism: Core value, represent the prestige of an organization. In order to be professional, administrator must understand the importance of their job, it is important that administrator hired to be visionaries 5. Leadership: To fullfil all other value, make a good example for the staff member, encourage them to achieve organizational goals. Have ability to recognize their ability
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Recommendation for corruption issue (1,2)
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– Root integrity promotion and anti-corruption education: Integrity promotion should not narrowly focus on anti-corruption education, but start with ethical education at large. For example, youth can take part in discussion on what success means and whether it is true success or not if it involves cheating or abusing power – Target efforts to the most vunerable group or sector: Young people are more likely to be the victims of corruption –> Special effort should be made in the urban areas, education sector, business environment, traffic police and health sector, which is becoming normal in the eyes of young people
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Recommendation for corruption issue (3,4)
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– Promote role model: Should be able to identify a role model for the young when it comes to learning principle and attitude of integrity – Involve and target family members: family is one of the most important sources of information, one of the most influences on conceptions of integrity for young people
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Recommendation for corruption issue (5,6)
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– Use media: promote the negative effect of corruption, highlight the importance why they should act with integrity – Teach concrete situations rather than abstract behavior: Provide specific cases of ethical dillemma that young people may face in their daily liÄ‘e
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NPM
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is the shift from government by control to government by contract, which typically involves the introduction of market logics in the government, change in organizational structure, redefinition of government’s roles and functions
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NPM Characteristic (1,2,3)
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– Decentralization: redistribute power to ease the burden of the central government, make better link with people – Downsizing and restructuring government machinery: reduce the volumn of public service, downsize to managerial roles only –> cut expenditure and improve efficiency – The use of IT and e-governance: Supervise human resources, information from the government transfer faster to the citizens, citizens can report and feedback issues
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NPM characteristic (4,5)
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– Debureaucratization and deregulation: redesign the bureaucratic process to increase efficiency and ability, address long and unecessary process and then correct, shorten it to focus on the real outcome, not the procedure – PRivatization: to ease the burden of the government, promote competitiveness to avoid the risks of loss-making enterprises
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Which solutions and rules should be applied to the public policy making process of land management in Vietnam nowaday
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– Public policy, decision-making policy – Public interest solution, civic solution – Scientific approach by Taylor: the importance of science not the rule of thumb – Administrative by Fayol with 14 principles: especially focus on the coordination and specialization in the matter of land management. Land belong to state, national level but it should have connection with local level. Therefore, the coordination is very important – Land management should care with other matter like ethic. Therefore, 7 principle of public life should be applied

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