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OSU Psych 1100 Social Psychology

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Social Psychology
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Study of how people influence others’ behavior, beliefs, and attitudes
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Halo Effect
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One or few positive characteristics impact overall positive perception of a person
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Thin Slices of Behavior
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Initial impressions did not change much after longer exposure time
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Attribution
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A judgement assigning the cause of a person’s behavior
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Dispositional Attribute
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A judgement assigning the cause of a person’s behavior to personal qualities or characteristics
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Situational Attribute
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A judgement assigning the cause of a person’s behavior to the enviornment
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Correspondence Bias
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The tendency to view behavior as the result of disposition even when the behavior can be explained by the situation in which it occurs
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Fundamental Attribution Error
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A failure to consider situational variables while making an attribution, leading to an overestimation of dispositional contributions when observing the behavior of others
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Actor-Observer Bias
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Emphasizing dispositional attributions to explain the behavior of others while emphasizing situational attributions to explain your own behavior
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Self-Serving Bias
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Attributing success to dispositional factors while attributing failure to situational factors
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Just-World Belief
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The assumption that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people
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Collectivist Culture
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Situational (Eastern society consider murder cases situational)
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Individualist Culture
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Dispositional (Western society consider murder cases dispositional)
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Attitude
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positive or negative evaluations that predispose behavior toward an object, person, or situation
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ABC
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Affect (Emotion), Behavior, Cognition
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Cognitive Dissonance
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the uncomfortable state that occurs when behavior and attitudes do not match and that can be resolved though attitude change
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Persuasion
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a change in attitudes in response to information provided by another person
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Elaboration Likelihood Model
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a model that predicts responses to persuasive messages by distinguishing between the central and the peripheral routes to persuasion
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Central
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more motivated and knowledgable, more likely to use central route (based on central facts)
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Peripheral
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Influenced by things not important to the main idea (Emotional appeals, media used)
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Prejudice
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a prejudgement, usually negative, of another person on the basis of membership in a group
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Stereotype
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a simplified set of traits associated with membership in a group or category
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Discrimination
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unfair behavior based on stereotyping and prejudice
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Stereotype Threat
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raising awareness of a negative stereotype about a group we belong to can reduce performance
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Social Norms
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usually unwritten or unspoken rules for behavior in social settings
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Conformity
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matching behavior and appearance to perceived social norms
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Compliance
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agreement with a request from a person with no perceived authority
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Reciprocation
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feeling obligated to give something back to people who have given us something, explains compliance
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Door in the Face
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a persuasive technique in which compliance with a target request is preceded by a larger unreasonable request
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Foot in the Door
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a persuasive technique in which compliance with a small request is followed by compliance with a larger request that might otherwise be rejected
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Obideience
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compliance with a request from an authority figure
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Groupthink
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a type of flawed decision making in which a group does not question its decisions critically
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Social Faclitation
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a situation is which the presence of other people changes performance
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Social Loafing
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reduced motivation and effort shown by individuals working in a group
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Deindividuation
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immersion of an individual within a group, leading to anonymity
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Group Polarization
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the intensifying of an attitude following discussion