Organic Chemistry – Chapter 1 Answers

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Organic Chemistry
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Chemistry of C compounds. 95% of all compounds.
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Electron Configuration of Atoms and Ions
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H 1s¹ He 1s² Li 1s²2s¹ Be 1s²2s² B 1s²2s²2p¹ C 1s²2s²2p² N 1s²2s²2p³ O 1s²2s²2p⁴ F 1s²2s²2p⁵ Ne 1s²2s²2p⁶ Na 1s²2s²2p⁶3s¹ Mg 1s²2s²2p⁶3s² Al 1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p¹ Si 1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p² P 1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p³ S 1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p⁴ Cl 1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p⁵ Ar 1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p⁶ K 1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p⁶4s¹ Ca 1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p⁶4s²
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Lewis Dot Structure of Atoms and Molecules
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1. Lewis structures show the connections between atoms in a molecule or ion using only the valence electrons of the atoms involved. 2. For main group elements, the number of valence electrons a neutral atom brings to a Lewis structure is the same as its group number in the periodic table. 3. If the structure we are drawing is a negative ion (an anion), we add one electron for each negative charge to the original count of valence electrons. If the structure is appositive ion (a cation), we subtract one electron for each positive charge. 4. In drawing Lewis structures we try to give each atom the electron configuration of a noble gas.
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VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Principle) for 6 Situations
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# of e⁻ pairs, bond angle, # of bonds, geometry 2, 180°, 2, linear 3, 120°, 3, triangular 3, 120°, 2, bent 4, 109.5°, 4, tetrahedral 4, 109.5°, 3, pyramidal 4, 109.5°, 2, bent
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Molecular Hybrids and Relationship to VSEPR
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1. Hybrid atomic orbitals are obtained by mixing the wave function for orbitals of different types (i.e. s and p orbitals) but form the same atom. 2. Hybridizing three p orbitals with one s orbital yields four sp³ orbitals. Atoms that are sp³ hybridized direct the axes of their four sp³ orbitals toward the corners of a tetrahedron. 3. Hybridizing two p orbitals with one s orbital yields three sp² orbitals. Atoms that are sp² hybridized point the axes of their three sp² orbitals toward the corners of an equilateral triangle. 4. Hybridizing one p orbital with one s orbital yields two sp orbitals. Atoms that are sp hybridized orient the axes of their two sp orbitals in opposite directions (at an angle of 180°).
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Bonding and Anti-bonding Levels
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Bonding results when two orbitals of the same phase overlap; anti-bonding results when two orbitals of opposite phase overlap.
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Sigma Bonds and Pi Bonds
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Single bond has one σ bond. Double bond has one σ bond and one π bond. Triple bond has one σ bond and two π bonds.
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Sigma (σ) Bond
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A single bond. Too strong to break.
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Pi (π) Bond
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The second and third bonds. Each subsequent π bond is weaker.
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Dash Formulas
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Condensed Formulas
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Bond-Line Formulas
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3-Dimensional Formulas
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