Operations Management Chapter 7 – Work Design and Measurement – Flashcards

question
process of specifying contents and methods for how work is to be done. AKA job design
answer
work design
question
1. What will be done? 2. Who will do it? 3. How will it be done? 4. Where will it be done?
answer
Key questions to address during work design process
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Efficiency and behavioral
answer
Two basic approaches to work design
question
emphasizes logical and systematic approach to work design process. focuses on labor specialization in which an employee's work is a very large part of producing a product or delivering a service
answer
Efficiency approach
question
-From employer's perspective: 1. Simplifies training. 2. High productivity. 3. Low wage cost.
answer
Advantages of efficiency approach
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-Can lead to job dissatisfaction resulting in: 1. Difficulty motivating employees. 2. Absenteeism and turnover. 3. Poor attention to quality.
answer
Disadvantages of efficiency approach
question
emphasizes satisfaction of wants and needs during design process
answer
Behavioral approach
question
use horizontal loading to give employee a larger portion of the total task
answer
Job enlargement
question
use cross-training to allow or require employees to periodically exchange jobs
answer
Job rotation
question
use vertical loading to increase employee's role in task planning and coordination
answer
Job enrichment
question
tie pay to performance by compensating employees solely based on output. A.K.A piecework
answer
Output-based systems
question
systems still used for incentive programs for individuals or teams
answer
piecework
question
pay employees based solely on time worked regardless of output and referred to as measured day of hourly systems
answer
Time-based systems
question
reward employees who achieve certain educational goals that increase specific skills
answer
Knowledge-based systems
question
1. Horizontal skills - increase variety of tasks employee can perform. 2. Vertical skills - increase process management tasks employee can perform.
answer
How knowledge-based systems improve employee skills
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3. Depth skills - improve employee's productivity and or quality of work
answer
How knowledge-based systems improve employee skills
question
involves understanding interaction of human beings with other elements of a system
answer
Ergonomics
question
considers issues such as repetitive movement, layout, health and safety
answer
physical ergonomics
question
considers issues such as mental workload, decision-making and stress
answer
cognitive ergonomics
question
studies teamwork, communication and work system design
answer
organizational ergonomics
question
systematic approach to studying how work is currently done and could be done better
answer
methods analysis
question
examine overall sequence of steps or tasks in an operation
answer
flow process charts
question
determine portions of a work cycle during which an operator or machine are busy or idle
answer
worker machine charts
question
systematic study of human motions used to perform an operation or task
answer
motion study
question
Improve arrangement of workplace. Combine activities and tasks. Reduce causes of worker fatigue.
answer
Primary goals of motion study
question
the process of determining how much time it should take to complete a task or type of work
answer
work measurement
question
time it takes a qualified employee to complete a specified task working at a sustainable rate. only valid for specified work method, work arrangement, and combo of resources such as equipment, tools, parts or materials
answer
standard time
question
time derived from multiple observations of one worker taken over a number of cycles
answer
stopwatch time study
question
statistical technique for determining the proportion of time spent by workers in various defined categories of activity
answer
work sampling
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question
process of specifying contents and methods for how work is to be done. AKA job design
answer
work design
question
1. What will be done? 2. Who will do it? 3. How will it be done? 4. Where will it be done?
answer
Key questions to address during work design process
question
Efficiency and behavioral
answer
Two basic approaches to work design
question
emphasizes logical and systematic approach to work design process. focuses on labor specialization in which an employee's work is a very large part of producing a product or delivering a service
answer
Efficiency approach
question
-From employer's perspective: 1. Simplifies training. 2. High productivity. 3. Low wage cost.
answer
Advantages of efficiency approach
question
-Can lead to job dissatisfaction resulting in: 1. Difficulty motivating employees. 2. Absenteeism and turnover. 3. Poor attention to quality.
answer
Disadvantages of efficiency approach
question
emphasizes satisfaction of wants and needs during design process
answer
Behavioral approach
question
use horizontal loading to give employee a larger portion of the total task
answer
Job enlargement
question
use cross-training to allow or require employees to periodically exchange jobs
answer
Job rotation
question
use vertical loading to increase employee's role in task planning and coordination
answer
Job enrichment
question
tie pay to performance by compensating employees solely based on output. A.K.A piecework
answer
Output-based systems
question
systems still used for incentive programs for individuals or teams
answer
piecework
question
pay employees based solely on time worked regardless of output and referred to as measured day of hourly systems
answer
Time-based systems
question
reward employees who achieve certain educational goals that increase specific skills
answer
Knowledge-based systems
question
1. Horizontal skills - increase variety of tasks employee can perform. 2. Vertical skills - increase process management tasks employee can perform.
answer
How knowledge-based systems improve employee skills
question
3. Depth skills - improve employee's productivity and or quality of work
answer
How knowledge-based systems improve employee skills
question
involves understanding interaction of human beings with other elements of a system
answer
Ergonomics
question
considers issues such as repetitive movement, layout, health and safety
answer
physical ergonomics
question
considers issues such as mental workload, decision-making and stress
answer
cognitive ergonomics
question
studies teamwork, communication and work system design
answer
organizational ergonomics
question
systematic approach to studying how work is currently done and could be done better
answer
methods analysis
question
examine overall sequence of steps or tasks in an operation
answer
flow process charts
question
determine portions of a work cycle during which an operator or machine are busy or idle
answer
worker machine charts
question
systematic study of human motions used to perform an operation or task
answer
motion study
question
Improve arrangement of workplace. Combine activities and tasks. Reduce causes of worker fatigue.
answer
Primary goals of motion study
question
the process of determining how much time it should take to complete a task or type of work
answer
work measurement
question
time it takes a qualified employee to complete a specified task working at a sustainable rate. only valid for specified work method, work arrangement, and combo of resources such as equipment, tools, parts or materials
answer
standard time
question
time derived from multiple observations of one worker taken over a number of cycles
answer
stopwatch time study
question
statistical technique for determining the proportion of time spent by workers in various defined categories of activity
answer
work sampling